0 mg/dL is 250 mL (5 mL/kg × 50 kg/L), while that for a patient weighing 70 kg with a SCr of 1.0 mg/dL is 300 mL, rather than 350 mL (5 mL/kg × 70 kg/L). In this study, 115 find more patients with kidney dysfunction underwent cardiac catheterization and angiography, and the amount of contrast media that was given adhered to the limit in 86 patients MM-102 cost and exceeded it in 29 patients. The incidence of CIN was significantly higher in the latter patients (21 %, 6/29 patients) than in the former patients (2 %, 2/86 patients). In a study of 391 patients who underwent PCI, the independent predictors of CIN were the volume of contrast media, eGFR, LVEF, and cardiogenic shock . The risk of CIN was 25 %
among patients with a contrast medium dose-to-eGFR ratio (gram-iodine/eGFR) of ≥1, which was significantly higher than that in those with a gram-iodine/eGFR of <1 (3 %). A study of patients undergoing PCI investigated the effects of contrast volume on the incidence of AKI, defined as a ≥0.3 mg/dL or ≥50 % increase in SCr levels from baseline, in subgroups of patients stratified according to categories in which 1.0 represents the “maximum allowable contrast dose” (MACD; calculated by using the formula described earlier ), of <0.5, 0.5–0.75, 0.75–1.0, 1.0–1.5, 1.5–2.0, and >2.0 .
The incidence buy ARS-1620 of AKI did not differ significantly among subgroups with a MACD ratio of ≤1, but increased in subgroups of patients with an MACD ratio of 1.0–1.5 (OR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.29–1.97), 1.5–2.0 (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.45–2.81), and >2.0 (OR 2.94, 95 % CI 1.93–4.48). The incremental use of contrast is associated with an increased risk of AKI. In a study of 421 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT with intravenous iodinated contrast media, Weisbord et al.  reported that the use of >100 mL of contrast media was associated with an increased risk of CIN (OR: 3.3, 95 % CI 1.0–11.5). Is the risk for developing CIN lower in patients receiving low- rather than high-osmolar contrast media? Answer: Patients with a high risk for
developing CIN should receive low-osmolar contrast media, which are less associated with CIN as compared with high-osmolar contrast media. In Japan, high-osmolar contrast media are not indicated for intravascular use. Does the risk for developing CIN differ ALOX15 between iso- and low-osmolar contrast media? Answer: There has been no definite conclusion as to whether the risk of CIN differs between iso- and low-osmolar contrast media. Does the risk for developing CIN differ among different low-osmolar contrast media? Answer: There has been no definite conclusion as to whether the incidence of CIN differs among different low-osmolar contrast media. In a meta-analysis of 31 studies, that the pooled odds of CKD (defined as a rise of SCr levels of more than 44 μmol/L) with non-ionic low-osmolar contrast media was 0.61 (95 % CI 0.48–0.77) times that of ionic high-osmolar contrast media .