2003; Reynolds 2003), and it is clear that community composition

2003; Reynolds 2003), and it is clear that community composition and other extrinsic factors will complicate predictions VX-809 supplier in many other situations where species are

threatened (Simberloff 1991; Williamson 1999). If it is not always possible to predict which species are at greatest risk, this uncertainty should only serve to underscore the importance of mitigating anthropogenic threats. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the many specialists who identified or confirmed identifications of many of our specimens: K. Arakaki, M. Arnedo, J. Beatty, K. Christiansen, G. Edgecombe, N. Evenhuis, C. Ewing, A. Fjellberg, V. Framenau, J. Garb, W. Haines, S. Hann, J. Heinze, F. Howarth, B. Kumashiro, J. Liebherr, I. MacGowan, K. Magnacca, S. Marshall, W. Mathis, J. Miller, E.

Mockford, S. Nakahara, D. Polhemus, D. Pollock, A. Pont, A. Ramsdale, G.A. Samuelson, B. Seifert, R. Shelley, C. Tauber, M. Tremblay, D. Tsuda, P. Vilkamaa, W. Weiner and M. Zapparoli. M. Anhalt, C. Berman, J. Long, M. Loope, A. Marks and K. Tice helped sort samples and made preliminary identifications. A. Taylor provided statistical advice, and B. Hoffmann, M. Power, G. Roderick and two reviewers made helpful comments on previous drafts. Funding came from the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program, the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, the Margaret C. Walker Fund, the Pacific Rim Research Program, and the Hawaii Audubon Society. Logistical support and access to collections was provided by the Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences at the University of Hawaii, the Haleakala Field Station and Kilauea https://www.selleckchem.com/products/XL184.html Field Station of the USGS’s Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Haleakala National Park, the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. The Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Department of Botany, University of Hawaii, provided administrative assistance. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of

the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which Sulfite dehydrogenase permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Electronic supplementary material Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. Supplementary material 1 (DOC 114 kb) References Balmford A (1996) Extinction filters and current resilience: the significance of past selection pressures for conservation biology. Trends Ecol Evol 11:193–196 Berlow EL, Navarrete SA, Briggs CJ, Power ME, Menge BA (1999) Quantifying variation in the strengths of species interactions. Ecology 80:2206–2224 Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ (2002) Extrinsic factors and the population sizes of threatened birds. Ecol Lett 5:568–576 Bolger DT, Suarez AV, Crooks KR, Morrison SA, Case TJ (2000) Arthropods in urban habitat fragments in southern California: area, age, and edge effects.

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