2006) Given the major roles of ants and termites in ecosystem fu

2006). Given the major roles of ants and termites in ecosystem function it is likely that functioning and Palbociclib datasheet resilience of both rain forest and oil palm plantation ecosystems will be affected by the abundance and composition of ant and termite assemblages (Naeem et al. 1994, Bihn et al. 2010). Previous studies have shown that both ant and termite diversity usually decrease following habitat conversion (Jones et al. 2003; Brühl and Eltz 2009). Logging of old growth forest reduces the total number of termite species

by 64 % (14 species cf. 39 species; Donovan et al. 2007), although it is not known how many termite species persist when forest is cleared for oil palm plantation. Ant species richness is also reduced by logging, although to a lesser extent, with 31 % of species being lost (Brühl 2001). Conversion to oil palm plantation has a more extreme effect, with ant species richness click here being reduced by 64-80 % (Brühl and Eltz 2009; Fayle et al. 2010). Termites and ants also show shifts in assemblage structure with habitat disturbance. Soil feeding termites are vulnerable to loss of old growth forest, although wood feeders may have more species in mature regenerating

forest (Eggleton et al. 1997). Invasive and generalist species dominate ant assemblages in oil palm plantation (Brühl et al. 2003; Fayle et al. 2010). We know of no studies that have either, (a) sampled ants and termites Niclosamide simultaneously across a forest disturbance gradient or, (b) considered termite community composition in oil palm plantation. Here we assess the co-variation in functional and feeding group composition of ants and termites along a habitat disturbance gradient comprising sites in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation converted from logged forest, in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods Study site All sampling was conducted in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, at an average of 450 m asl. Survey

habitats were: old growth lowland dipterocarp rain forest (OG) in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area (4°49′N, 116°54′E); twice-logged rain forest (LF); and oil palm plantation (OP) managed by Benta Wawasan (a subsidiary company of the state government body, Yayasan Sabah) (4°43′N, 117°35′E). Old growth forest survey points at Maliau were in forest that has never been logged commercially, although half of the survey points were in forest that has been lightly logged once. Stand basal area in this lightly-logged area remains similar to undisturbed sites (Hamzah Tangki, unpublished data) and substantially different from the commercially logged forest (Ewers et al. 2011). Tree communities were deemed not to have changed significantly (Ewers et al. 2011). Logged forest survey points were in forest that has been selectively logged twice: once during the 1970s and again from the late 1990s-2000s.

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