A 5 μL volume of Nanovan® was then added to the sample and remove

A 5 μL volume of Nanovan® was then added to the sample and removed immediately afterward. The grids were left to dry and examined using TEM. The size and size distribution (polydispersity index, PDI) of the NPs was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy using a Zetasizer (Nano ZS dynamic light scattering instrument, Malvern Instruments Ltd., Malvern, UK). Each sample was run five times. The same instrument was used to determine the zeta potential values of the NPs dispersed Selisistat mouse in distilled water. Each determination represented a mean value derived from 30 replicate measurements. The fluorescence of NP dispersion samples diluted with PBS (pH 7.4) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry as reported

[26]. The fluorescence intensity of a 300-fold diluted translucent sample of the prepared NP dispersion was measured using a Varian Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer (Varian Australia selleck compound Pty Ltd., Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia). The excitation/emission wavelengths were set to 540/625 and 495/525 nm for Rh B and FITC, respectively. A 500 μL-sample of Rh B NPs dispersions of different PLGA composition (F3, F4 and F5) was placed in 1 mL ready-to-use dialysis devices (Float-A-Lyzer® G2, 20 kDa MWCO, Spectra/Por®, USA). Prior to use, the screw caps were removed, and the devices were

submerged open and allowed to soak in deionized water for 30 min to remove the impregnating glycerol added by the manufacturer for protection. The devices were allowed to float vertically using the floatation rings at 37 °C in a 10 mL-beaker containing 8 mL of PBS pH 7.4, selected to correlate release data with skin permeation data. The release medium was stirred using small magnetic bars at 500 rpm and a multipoint magnetic stirrer (Cimarec i Poly 15

Multipoint stirrer, Thermo Electron Corporation, Beenham, Reading, UK). Samples (100 μL each) were removed from the beakers at specified time intervals for up to 6 h. An equal volume of fresh PBS (pH 7.4) was added to maintain a constant volume. Levetiracetam The withdrawn samples were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy as described earlier. MN arrays were fabricated using 30% w/v aqueous polymeric solution of PMVE/MA copolymer and laser-engineered silicone micro-molding, as described previously [29] and [30]. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, arrays were mounted on aluminum stubs using double-sided adhesive tape and “silver dag.” A SC515 SEM sputter coater (Polaron, East Grinstead, UK) was used to coat the arrays with a 20 nm-thick layer of gold/palladium. The arrays were observed under a JSM 6400 digital SEM (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and photomicrographs of MN structures were obtained. Full thickness porcine skin was obtained from ears of pigs (Landrace species), harvested immediately following slaughter at a local abattoir (Glasgow, UK). The ears were sectioned using a scalpel to yield whole skin samples.

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