Animals were then sacrificed and the colon analysed by histopatho

Animals were then sacrificed and the colon analysed by histopathology. A semiquantitative score was adapted from the TJL score 26, replacing the score for hyperplasia by a score for oedema (1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe). LPS (Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5; Sigma-Aldrich) was injected i.p. (5 μg/kg body weight) in 200–300 μL sterile PBS. Animals (8–12 wk old) were sacrificed 6 h later and serum samples from cardiac blood were stored at −80°C until further processing. Cytokines and chemokines were quantified using a mouse cytokine twenty-plex kit (Invitrogen) check details on a Luminex 100® LiquiChip® Workstation (Qiagen) with Luminex 100® IS Software v2.3. Male mice (6–8 wk old) were orally

infected with 160–200 embryonated eggs of T. muris E-isolate. Mice were sacrificed at different time points and the worm burden was assessed by counting larvae that were present in their caecum. Statistical

analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism5 (GraphPad Software). This paper is dedicated to Jacques Chiller. M. C. P. was supported by the DFG through GRK 705II. N. F. was supported by a Marie Curie Early Selleck C59 wnt Stage Research Training Fellowship (MEST-CT-2004-504990). F. P. was supported by IMDEMI. The work was supported by the DFG, Sonderforschungsbereich 621, Project A2 and the European Union Grant MUGEN LSHG-CT-2005-005203. The authors thank M. Ebel, S. Keilholz-Gast, M. Baier, A. Samuels and A. Rinkel for technical assistance. Finally, the authors thank Kathryn Else for providing us with the T. muris infection model. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published Interleukin-2 receptor as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They are made available as submitted by the authors. “
“The aim of this study was to estimate the

incidence of the disease and to analyze laboratory data of 23 newborns undergoing serologic testing for alloimmune neonatal neutropenia (ANN) during the 1998–2008 period in Croatia. Laboratory data on 23 newborns undergoing serologic testing for ANN during the 1998–2008 period and epidemiologic data on the number of live births in Croatia were analyzed. Laboratory testing for ANN included serologic screening of maternal and neonatal sera and granulocytes (neutrophils) by immunofluorescence (IF) method. The monoclonal antibody immobilization of neutrophil antigens (MAINA) was employed to determine anti-HNA antibody specificity. Anti-HNA antibodies were detected in seven (54%) of 13 cases of serologically positive ANN. Only anti-HLA class I antibodies were demonstrated in four (31%) of 13 cases In the 2007–2008 period of prospective data collection, the number of serologically verified ANN cases was one case per 17,323 live births.

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