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“Introduction With an estimated 25,000 species, the Orchidaceae is among the most diverse flowering plant families known (Dixon et al. 2003). Chinese orchids, estimated to be at least 1,388 species, are important components of China’s Cytidine deaminase botanical diversity and of orchid diversity worldwide, with 491 spp. (35 %) known to be endemic (Chen et al. 2009). Habitat destruction and over collection for horticulture are Aurora Kinase inhibitor threats common to wild orchids worldwide (Dixon et al. 2003). Threats from habitat destruction to biodiversity are especially acute in China because of the country’s rapid economic growth and rural development in the past few decades (Liu et al. 2003). A much less known threat to orchids of China is the 2000-year tradition in ethnobotanical use of orchid species in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM; Chinese Medicinal Material, INC. 1995).

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