Critically, there was no difference in the ERP waveforms elicited by congruent and incongruent homophones in the N450 time window. However, in a later time window (600-800 ms) the incongruent homophones elicited an apparent positivity over left posterior regions. A similar effect was also observed for incongruent color words. These bindings thus indicate that phonology does not play an important role in semantic activation of Chinese single-character words, and that the behavioral Stroop effects for homophones possibly arises at later stage of lexical processing. (C) 2010 IBRO.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The cell adhesion molecule close homologue of L1 (CHL1) Tucidinostat research buy is important for apical dendritic projection and laminar positioning of pyramidal neurons in caudal regions of the cerebral cortex. The p21-activated kinase (PAK1-3) subfamily of serine/threonine kinases has also been implicated in selleckchem regulating cell adhesion, migration, and morphology. Immunofluorescence staining in mouse embryonic brain showed that PAK1-3 was
expressed in embryonic cortex and colocalized with CHL1 during neuronal migration and differentiation. To investigate a cooperative function for CHL1 and PAK in pyramidal cell differentiation or migration, a dominant-negative PAK mutant (PAK1 AID) that inhibits PAK1-3 kinase activity while coexpressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter was electroporated into the lateral ventricles of wild type (WT) and CHL1 null mutant mouse embryos (E14.5), Ceramide glucosyltransferase then brain slices were cultured and neurons analyzed for laminar positioning and morphology by confocal microscopy after 3 days in vitro. Expression of PAK1 AID in CHL1 mutant cortex inactivated PAK and caused embryonic cortical neurons to branch profusely in the intermediate zone (IZ) and cortical plate (CP). The number of nodes, terminals and length of leading processes/apical dendrites of CHL1 mutant embryos expressing PAK1 AID increased dramatically, compared to CHL1 mutants without PAK1 AID, or WT embryos with or without
PAK1 AID. These findings suggest that CHL1 and PAK1-3 kinase cooperate, most likely in independent pathways, in regulating morphological development of the leading process/apical dendrite of embryonic cortical neurons. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Onecut (OC) transcription factors, namely Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF-6), OC-2 and OC-3, are transcriptional activators expressed in liver, pancreas and nervous system during development. Although their expression and roles in endoderm-derived tissues and in the trigeminal ganglia have been investigated, their expression in the CNS has not been described yet. In this study, we report a qualitative and quantitative expression profile of the OC factors in the developing spinal motor neurons (MN). We provide evidence that OC expression is initiated in newly-born MN.