flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens, the causal agent of cowpea bacterial wilt in Iran. “
“Evolutionarily conserved ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (referred to ‘NTPDases’ below) are important ecto-nucleotidases that are able to hydrolyse NTPs and NDPs in the environment to the monophosphate form. NTPDases are found in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including medical pathogens. However, pathogenic roles of these NTPDases in medical and plant pathogens are still very obscure. Here, we demonstrate that conidial germination, appressorium formation and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that had been pretreated with NTPDase-specific inhibitors
were significantly reduced, suggesting that NTPDases of M. oryzae play an important role in its infection. Our findings may
provide a new avenue for powerful fungicide development and KU-60019 the control of rice blast. “
“Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) with a high incidence and widespread distribution on Brassica crops in Iran reduces the yield and quality of these crops. The complete sequences of three open reading frames (ORFs) 2, 4 and 6 coding for aphid transmission (AT), coat protein (CP) and inclusion body protein/translation transactivator (TAV) genes, respectively, were determined www.selleckchem.com/products/epz-6438.html for two Iranian CaMV isolates from Kerman (south Iran). They induced latent or mild mottle (L/MMo) infection in Brassica oleracea var. capitata so are considered as the (L/MMo) biotype. Clear recombination breakpoints were detected between ORF2 and ORF6 in two Kerman isolates using concatenate fragments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three Iranian CaMV 上海皓元 subpopulations in which the two Kerman isolates in the new subgroup C were added to the two previously reported Iranian subpopulations A (central and west Iran) and B (north-east Iran). Also three regions of pairwise identity were detected which representing: 97.1–100, 93.8–97.1 and 90.6–93.8% for subgroups A, C and B, respectively. Our
analysis showed the high variability of Iranian CaMV population and provided valuable new information for understanding the diversity and evolution of caulimoviruses. Furthermore, star phylogeny was found in the subgroup C with overall lack of nt diversity and high haplotype diversity as evidence of a recent population expansion after a genetic bottleneck although this may have been modified subsequently by clinal genetic drift. The appearance of new genetic types demonstrates a high potential of risks and should be considered in the planning of efficient control programmes. “
“In recent years, leaf necrosis and twig dieback in the olive crop have been detected in Sicily (Italy). In this article, we identify the predominant fungal species associated with symptomatic leaves and twigs, using morphological features and DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, as Alternaria alternata, Arthrinium phaeospermum, Phoma cladoniicola and Ulocladium consortiale.