Furthermore, it has also been described that direct contacts betw

Furthermore, it has also been described that direct contacts between the antigen-presenting cells and pollen grain particles may strongly influence the outcome of the activation

of the cells, MI-503 research buy which could account for the reported adjuvant activity of intact pollens.[23, 24] Therefore, to identify the molecular effects of pollen components on antigen-presenting cells, we have used a commercially available pollen extract in our studies that is typically used for skin allergy tests. Furthermore, while pollen grains have been shown to contain endogenous NADPH, the use of pollen extract required exogenous addition of NADPH to study the effect of pollen NADPH oxidase, as this has been established previously.[3] Pollen NADPH oxidases are able to induce oxidative stress in various epithelial cells[25] and also in dendritic cells.[26]. Here we show that in THP-1 macrophages RWE causes a steadily increasing level of intracellular ROS and a sustained exposure to ROS, in good agreement with studies that showed long-term intracellular ROS production in pollen-treated A549 alveolar epithelial cells.[25] On the other hand, LPS treatment alone neither induced detectable ROS production nor enhanced the RWE-induced one in

THP-1 cells, in line with a previous study Selleck ABT888 where, using the same method, no cytoplasmic ROS production was detected in THP-1 cells upon LPS stimulus.[20] The primary sources of LPS-generated ROS are the mitochondria,[27] into which the de-esterified substrate probe is not expected to penetrate. Our results suggest that agents

capable of causing elevated cytoplasmic ROS levels (like H2O2 or RWE with NADPH) can enhance the LPS-induced IL-1β production but cannot alone yield mature IL-1β. In our assay system MitoTempo, a specific mitochondrial ROS production inhibitor, caused a similar degree of inhibition in the LPS and RWE-co-treated THP-1 cells as in the LPS-treated ones, suggesting that Galeterone the oxidative stress induced by RWE treatment is independent of the mitochondrial ROS generation. The functional involvement of the increased intracellular ROS levels in this enhancing effect was supported by the NADPH-requirement of the RWE and by the strong inhibition of IL-1β production by ROS inhibitors and scavengers.[28] Our experiments using a caspase-1 inhibitor as well as silencing of NLRP3 demonstrates that IL-1β production requires NLRP3 inflammasome function. Although various inflammasome complexes have been associated with IL-1β production, such as AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2), IPAF (interleukin-1-converting enzyme protease-activating factor), NLRP1 or NLRP3 inflammasomes,[29] only NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production was previously demonstrated to be mediated by intracellular ROS.

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