Heterokaryon assays confirmed that UL3 was capable of shuttling b

Heterokaryon assays confirmed that UL3 was capable of shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These results demonstrate that the UL3 protein is a novel HSV-1 encoded nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Fuelled by new sequencing technologies, epigenome

mapping projects are revealing epigenomic variation at all levels of biological complexity, from species to cells. Comparisons of methylation profiles among species reveal evolutionary conservation of gene body methylation patterns, pointing to the fundamental role of epigenomes in gene regulation. At the human population level, epigenomic AZD1480 changes provide footprints of the effects of genomic variants within the vast nonprotein-coding fraction of the genome, and comparisons of the epigenomes of parents and their offspring point to quantitative epigenomic parent-of-origin effects confounding

classical Mendelian genetics. At the organismal level, comparisons of epigenomes from diverse cell types Bafilomycin A1 provide insights into cellular differentiation. Finally, comparisons of epigenomes from monozygotic twins help dissect genetic and environmental influences on human phenotypes and longitudinal comparisons reveal aging-associated epigenomic drift. The development of new bioinformatic frameworks for comparative epigenome analysis is putting epigenome maps within the reach of researchers across a wide spectrum of biological disciplines.”
“Background Selleck Venetoclax and objective: Evidence shows that acetylcholinergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens. (NAc) plays an important role in heroin-seeking induced by cues. Cholinergic modulation of VTA neurons arises from the lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT). The present studies investigated the effect

of systemic or intra- LDT administration of galantamine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, on heroin-seeking induced by cues.

Methods: Rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 12 days, underwent extinction training for 12 days followed by two weeks in their home cages. Then the conditioned cues were introduced for the reinstatement of heroin-seeking.

Results: The reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was attenuated by the administration of galantamine (0, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, galantamine only at the dose of 3 mg/kg could inhibit the reinstatement of sucrose-seeking. Galantamine at those doses failed to alter the locomotor activity in heroin-withdrawn rats. The inhibition of drug-seeking by galantamine was reversed by pretreatment with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) but not with mecamylamine (3 mg/kg) or scopolamine methobromide (1 mg/kg). Moreover, the microinjection of galantamine into the LDT blocked cue-induced heroin-seeking, while the microinjection of scopolamine into the LDT reversed the inhibitory effect of galantamine on drug-seeking behavior.

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