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“Background Cystine, a dipeptide of the sulfur amino acid cysteine, is a precursor of glutathione (GSH) that is responsible for the antioxidant response in the body, and its supply is limiting in the synthesis of GSH. On the other hand, theanine is an amino acid abundant in green tea and is known to be metabolized to glutamic acid and ethylamine within the intestinal tract, liver, etc. [2, 3]. A recent experiment in mice indicated
that oral administration of cystine and theanine (CT) reinforces GSH synthesis and Vorinostat research buy humoral immune responses after antigen stimulation, and, as a result, reinforces antigen-specific antibody production . In this report, heptaminol CT increased the levels of total GSH and the serum IL-10/IFN-γ ratio related to the balance of T helper (Th) 1/Th2 cell responses after immunization. As a result, CT enhanced serum antigen-specific IgG production via the increased Th2-mediated responses after immunization . In the analysis on the model of influenza virus infection using aged mice, CT also was reported to decrease the lung viral titer after infection through the increase of serum IL-10/IFN-γ ratio and GSH synthesis in the spleen . In addition, in a clinical study in humans, Miyagawa et al.