One drop of cell suspension was spread on a microcover, coated wi

One drop of cell suspension was spread on a microcover, coated with gold, and examined using a LEO 1430VP scanning electron microscope (SEM). CHIR-99021 ic50 Antibiotic susceptibility tests The susceptibility of L. monocytogenes strains to penicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin was determined using an E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Overnight cultures of the strains were diluted into fresh BHI medium and grown at 37°C with aeration to an OD600 of 0.2. The cultures were diluted and a suspension containing 106 CFU/ml was swabbed onto plates of BHI agar supplemented with nisin to a final concentration of 15 μg/ml. E-test strips

were placed on see more the inoculated plates, which were then incubated at 37°C for 24 h and 48 h before the results were recorded. Survival of the L. monocytogenes strains was tested in the presence of a lethal dose of penicillin G. Overnight cultures of the strains were diluted (1:50) into CDK activation BHI broth and grown at 37°C to early exponential phase (OD600 of 0.2) before nisin powder was added to a final concentration of 15 μg/ml. The cultures were then grown for a further 30 min before penicillin G was added to a final concentration of 0.6 μg/ml. The effect of the antibiotic on the L. monocytogenes strains was compared spectrophotometrically by recording the OD600 of the cultures and by determining the number of viable bacteria, following serial dilution and plating

on BHI agar. Acknowledgements We thank Michiel Kleerebezem for providing plasmids pNZ9530 and pNZ8048. This work was supported by the University of Warsaw, Poland (statutory fund BST 1404-00/501-64/1530). References 1. Vazquez-Boland JA, Kuhn M, Berche P, Chakraborty T, Dominguez-Bernal G, Goebel W, Gonzalez-Zorn B, Wehland J, Kreft J: Listeria pathogenesis and molecular Anidulafungin (LY303366) virulence determinants. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001, 14:1–57.CrossRef 2. Hof H, Nichterlein T, Kretschmar M: Management of listeriosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997, 10:345–357. 3. Vicente MF, Berenguer J, de Pedro MA, Perez-Diaz JC, Baquero F: Penicillin binding proteins in Listeria monocytogenes

. Acta Microbiol Hung 1990, 37:227–231.PubMed 4. Gutkind GO, Ogueta SB, de Urtiaga AC, Mollerach ME, de Torres RA: Participation of PBP 3 in the acquisition of dicloxacillin resistance in Listeria monocytogenes . J Antimicrob Chemother 1990, 25:751–758.PubMedCrossRef 5. Vicente MF, Perez-Daz JC, Baquero F: Angel de Pedro M, Berenguer J: Penicillin-binding protein 3 of Listeria monocytogenes as the primary lethal target for beta-lactams. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990, 34:539–542.PubMed 6. Pierre J, Boisivon A, Gutmann L: Alteration of PBP 3 entails resistance to imipenem in Listeria monocytogenes . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990, 34:1695–1698.PubMed 7. Hakenbeck R, Hof H: Relatedness of penicillin-binding proteins from various Listeria species. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1991, 84:191–196.CrossRef 8.

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