Results: Akt/mTOR and TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathways were conc

Results: Akt/mTOR and TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathways were concurrently activated in kidneys in DN model rats. AM markedly regulated p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-Smad2/3, Smad7 and TGF-beta1 protein expressions, and synchronously ameliorated proteinuria, mesangial matrix expansion,

alpha-SMA expression and collagen deposition in glomeruli, Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor without lowering hyperglycemia. Additionally, the retardation in glomerularsclerotic development was significantly observed. Conclusion: Activated Akt/mTOR and TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathways jointly contributed to glomerular injury in DN model rats. AM, as a natural regulator in vivo, could effectively attenuate GS by potential molecular mechanisms involving reduction of mesangial

matrix and suppression of Akt and mTOR activation, as well as bidirectional regulation of TGF-beta1/Smad signaling activity. OE YUJI1, SATO HIROSHI2, ITO SADAYOSHI1, TAKAHASHI NOBUYUKI2 1Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University; 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is Pim inhibitor a leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide. We have recently demonstrated that the reduction in eNOS (Nos3) expression exacerbates DN, which is associated with increased expression and activity of renal tissue factor, an

initiator of coagulation cascade, and that the inhibition of tissue factor ameliorates DN (J Thromb Haemost 2010, PNAS 2011). However, the role of coagulation system in DN is Liothyronine Sodium not fully understood. Coagulation proteases such as factor Xa (FXa) stimulate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Signaling through PARs promotes inflammation and fibrosis. Accordingly, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the expression of PARs and the role of FXa in DN using a mouse model of human DN. Methods: Male diabetic mice with different Nos3 genotypes: Ins2Akita/+;Nos3+/+, Ins2Akita/+;Nos3+/− and Ins2Akita/+;Nos3−/−, were used in this study. At the age of 3 months, they were administered orally with FXa inhibitor (Edoxaban, 50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (0.5% CMC). At 3 and 6 months of age, the mice were individually housed in metabolic cages for kidney function analysis, and their blood pressure was measured using tail-cuff. After analyses at 6 months old mice were sacrificed to analyze the PARs expression and disease parameters. Results: Gene expression levels of Par1 and Par2 in the renal cortex were significantly higher in Ins2Akita/+;Nos3+/− and Ins2Akita/+;Nos3−/− mice compared to those of Ins2Akita/+;Nos3+/+ mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PAR1 was strongly positive in glomeruli and fibrous lesion.

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