The differences between L- and D-conformation energies (ΔE conf)

The differences between L- and D-conformation energies (ΔE conf) are evaluated by DFT methods at the Evofosfamide cell line B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Although, as expected, these ΔE conf values are not large, they do give differences in energy that can distinguish the chirality of amino-acids. Based on our calculations, the chiral selection of the earliest amino-acids for L-enantiomers seems to be determined by a clear stereochemical /physicochemical relationship. As later amino-acids developed from the earliest amino-acids, we deduce that the chirality of

these late amino-acids was inherited from that of the early amino-acids. This idea reaches far back into evolution, and we hope that it will guide further experiments in this area. Figure 1. The structure model of the (N)amino acid-5′-nucleoside click here (dashed line stands for H-bond) Arrhenius, G., Sales, B., Mojzsis, S., and Lee, T. (1997). Entropy and charge in molecular evolution: the role of phosphate. The Journal of Theoretical Biology 187: 503–522. Bonner, W.A. (2000). Parity violation and the evolution of biomolecular homochirality. Chirality, 12: 114–126. Jorissen, A., and Cerf, C. (2002). Photoreactions as the Origin of Biomolecular Homochirality: A critical review.

Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 32: 129–142. Cheng, C.M., Fan, C., Wan, R., Tong, C.Y., Miao, Z.W., Chen, J., and Zhao, Y.F. (2002). Phosphorylation of adenosine with trimetaphosphate under simulated prebiotic condition. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 32:219–224. Di Giulio, M. (2004). The coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code. Physics of Life Reviews, 2: 128–137. Yang, P., and Han, D.X. (2000). Molecular modeling of the binding SB-3CT mode of chiral metal complex Δ-and Λ-[Co(phen)2dppz]3 + with DNA. Science in China B, 43: 516–523. E-mail: [email protected]​edu.​cn N-selleck chemicals phosphoryl Amino Acids Reacted with Mixture of Four Nucleosides (A, G, C and U) in Aqueous Solution: A Clue for Genetic Code Origin Hongxia Liu1, Xiang Gao2, Yibao Jin1, Hui

Li1, Yuyang Jiang1*, Yufen Zhao2* 1The Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Guangdong Province, Graduate School of Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518057, P. R. China; 2Department of Chemistry and The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, P. R. China N-phosphoryl amino acids are unique chemical species with many novel properties, for instance, the ability to self-assemble into oligopeptides in aqueous solution. In our previous work, N- (O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl threonine could react with uridine to form peptides and nucleotides in anhydrous pyridine. So Zhao et al. proposed a hypothesis that interaction of N-phosphoryl amino acids with nucleosides could be considered as a model for co-evolution of proteins and nucleic acids (Zhou, et al. 1996; Zhao and Cao, 1994; Zhao and Cao, 1999; Zhao, et al. 2000).

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