One of the minor reaction products is the N-[(8 alpha,13)-epoxyla

One of the minor reaction products is the N-[(8 alpha,13)-epoxylabdan-14-yl]acetamide whose formation requires the intermediate cyclization of the sclareol. Under more severe conditions and at the reversed order of the reagents addition the prevailing components of the reaction mixture are cyclized and rearranged N-[(8 alpha,14)-epoxy-16(13 -> 14)-abeo-labdan-13-yl]acetamides stereoisomeric at the C-13 atom, and minor compounds, (8 alpha,13)-epoxy-16(13 -> 14)-abeo-labdan-12(13)-ene

and (8 alpha,14)-epoxy-16(13 -> 4)-abeo-labdan-12(13)-ene.”
“Background: Myocardial T-1 and T-2 mapping using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) are promising to improve tissue characterization and early disease detection. This study aimed at analyzing the feasibility of T-1 and T-2 mapping at 3 T and providing reference values.

Methods: selleckchem Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males/females,

each 20 from 20-39 years, 40-59 years, 60-80 years) underwent left-ventricular T-1 and T-2 mapping in 3 short-axis slices at 3 T. For T-2 mapping, 3 single-shot steady-state free precession (SSFP) images with different T-2 preparation times were acquired. For T-1 mapping, modified Look-Locker inversion recovery technique with 11 single shot SSFP images was used before and after injection of gadolinium contrast. T-1 and T-2 relaxation times were quantified for each slice and each myocardial segment.

Results: Mean T-2 and T-1 (pre-/post-contrast) times were: 44.1 ms/1157.1 ms/427.3 ms (base), 45.1 ms/1158.7 ms/411.2 ms (middle), 46.9 ms/1180.6 ms/399.7 ms (apex). T-2 and pre-contrast T-1 increased from base to apex, post-contrast T-1 decreased. Relevant inter-subject variability was apparent (scatter factor 1.08/1.05/1.11 for T-2/pre-contrast T-1/post-contrast

T-1). T-2 and post-contrast T-1 were influenced by heart rate (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0020), pre-contrast T-1 by age (p < 0.0001). Inter-and intra-observer agreement of T-2 (r = 0.95; r NSC 718781 = 0.95) and T-1 (r = 0.91; r = 0.93) were high. T-2 maps: 97.7% of all segments were diagnostic and 2.3% were excluded (susceptibility artifact). T-1 maps (pre-/post-contrast): 91.6%/93.9% were diagnostic, 8.4%/6.1% were excluded (predominantly susceptibility artifact 7.7%/3.2%).

Conclusions: Myocardial T-2 and T-1 reference values for the specific CMR setting are provided. The diagnostic impact of the high inter-subject variability of T-2 and T-1 relaxation times requires further investigation.”
“Background: The time from symptom onset to seeking medical assistance (decision delay) accounts for a proportion of prehospital delay in acute stroke. The aims of this study were to identify factors related to decision delay and calling the emergency medical services (EMS) as the first medical contact.

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