We checked this through the FITC-coupled Annexin V reaction followed by flow cytometry of co-labeled Annexin V/PI cells. We mTOR inhibitor observed that gup1∆ mutant aging cells presents a significant percentage (53%) of necrotic cells (Ann (−)/PI(+)). In contrast, in Wt cells the exposure of phosphatidylserine (Ann (+)/PI (−)) increased in aged cells (less than 1% to ~12%) (Figure 2B). In order to evaluate the mitochondrial membrane depolarization, DiOC6 was used. At a concentration of 20 ng/ml this dye accumulates specifically at mitochondrial membranes and can be observed
by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, cells that have low mitochondrial selleck chemicals llc membrane potential will fail to accumulate DiOC6. Both gup1∆ mutant and Wt exponential cells stained with DiOC6 revealed Rabusertib intact mitochondrial networks, confirming
a normal polarization of mitochondrial membranes (Figure 2C left panels). Aged cells (7 and 12 days in gup1∆ mutant and Wt, respectively), showed a decrease in green fluorescence of approximately 40% in Wt and 50% in gup1∆ mutant, reflecting a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (Figure 2C right panels). Moreover, some cells exhibited a strong green fluorescence all over the cell, mainly in gup1∆ mutant strain, suggesting that these cells possibly had the plasma membrane altered, which in turn resulted in the accumulation of DiOC6 on the cytosol (Figure 2C right panels). Finally, we evaluated chromatin condensation through DAPI staining (Figure 2D). Moderate chromatin condensation upon DAPI staining was observed in 80% of old gup1∆ mutant cells, which can be visualized by the fluorescent semicircles formed by the chromatin fragments (Figure 2D right panels). Regarding Wt aged cells, we observed some cells with chromatin condensation, but we also detected cells without Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase stained nucleus or even with multiples nucleus (Figure 2D right panels). These are probably due to an endomitosis process [45, 46]. In contrast, in exponentially growing cultures, both Wt and
gup1∆ mutant cells presented integral chromatin mirrored as single round fluorescent circles in the middle of the cell (Figure 2D left panels). gup1∆ mutant cells are sensitive to acetic acid In a previous work, it was described that gup1∆ mutant cells were sensitive to weak acids . However, the concentrations of acetic acid that induce apoptosis in yeast are considerably higher than the ones studied at that time (50 mM). Therefore, we investigated gup1∆ mutant and Wt sensitivity to a wide range of acid concentrations (50, 80 and 100 mM). With the lowest concentration of acetic acid (50 mM), no effect was observed; however, when the concentration was increased both strains were affected, being gup1∆ mutant strain the most sensitive one.