5 mg‧kg-1 body mass; FC trials) or an equivalent amount of placebo (calcium carbonate; F trial). The participants, GSK690693 purchase who were habitually moderate caffeine users (from none to two cups of coffee per day), were
required to maintain normal training habits throughout the study period, but refrain from strenuous training and consumption of alcohol or caffeine-containing products 48 hrs prior to each exercise test. Procedures All exercise tests were carried out between 16:00-21:00 h following a 4 h fast, where water was allowed ad libitum. Participants reported to the laboratory 1 1/2 h before the start of exercise, and on the two fat trials consumed capsules containing caffeine or placebo, 3 h after consuming the fat meal. Once body mass was measured, participants were seated comfortably with their right hand and forearm immersed for 15 min in water at 42-44°C, to achieve arterialization of the venous blood . Following this, an 18 G venous cannula was introduced into a superficial vein on the dorsal surface of the buy Tozasertib heated hand and a resting blood sample was obtained. Further blood samples were obtained at 15 min intervals throughout exercise until the 90 min time-point and at exhaustion. Participants were transferred to the climatic
chamber (ambient temperature 10.2 ± 0.2°C; relative humidity 69.8 ± 1.0%; air velocity of Milciclib molecular weight approximately 3.6 m‧s-1) and began exercise within 1 min Farnesyltransferase of entering. The exercise intensity and ambient temperature were chosen to induce fatigue that would be most likely due to muscle glycogen depletion rather than the result of some failure in the thermoregulatory system . The cannula was kept patent by a slow (~0.5 ml‧min-1) infusion of isotonic saline between samples during both experiments. Arterialization of
the venous blood was maintained throughout exercise by heating the hand using an infrared lamp. The participants ingested 7.14 g‧kg-1 and 2.14 g‧kg-1 of water at rest and every 15 min throughout exercise, respectively. The participants were asked to maintain a pedal cadence of 60-80 rev‧min-1 throughout the test; exhaustion was defined as the point at which the subject could no longer maintain the pedal cadence above 60 rev‧min-1 Expired gas was collected in Douglas bags for 5 min at rest, and thereafter 1 min collections were obtained every 15 min during exercise. Expired gases were analysed within 5 min of collection for oxygen uptake (VO2) (Servomex 570A, East Sussex, UK) and carbon dioxide production (VO2) (Servomex 1400 B4, East Sussex, UK), volume (dry gas meter, Harvard Apparatus Ltd., Hertfordshire, UK) and temperature (C6600 10-Channel Microprocessor, Comark, Hertfordshire, UK). All gas volumes were corrected to STPD. Barometric pressure was measured using a standard mercury barometer.