2007; Buchanan et al 2010; Downes and Crack 2010; Lehnardt 2010

2007; Buchanan et al. 2010; Downes and Crack 2010; Lehnardt 2010). A main downstream event following pathogen recognition by microglia is the activation of NADPH-oxidase, which is a fundamental step for free radical release and other pro-inflammatory microglial actions (Block and Hong 2005; Qin et al. 2005; Cheret et al. 2008). This is a physiological and an appropriate response of microglia in order to eliminate pathogens and preserve tissue integrity. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that in noninfectious diseases, such as stroke, SCI, and chronic neurodegenerative diseases,

microglia might mistake noninfectious disease-associated stimuli for the ones associated with infectious diseases, activating Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical their killing mechanisms, which normally would be used to kill Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pathogens, but are unintentionally used to kill neurons (Block et al. 2007; Griffiths et al. 2007). It has been suggested that PRR activation underlies the mechanisms of cell demise in a number of noninfectious neural and nonneural diseases (Karin et al. 2006; Town et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2006; Griffiths et al. 2007; Lehnardt et al. 2007; Ziegler et al. 2007). For example, TLR-2 mediates CNS injury

in focal cerebral ischemia (Lehnardt et al. 2007) and activation of TLR-4 by a specific type of heat shock protein may be an endogenous molecular pathway common to many forms of neuronal injury (Lehnardt et al. 2008). TLR4 and CD14 are the primary LPS receptors in microglia (Lien et al. 2000) and in several experimental circumstances LPS induces microglia activation with neurotoxic consequences (Ling et al. 2006; Pei et al. 2007; Qin et al. 2007). Activation of other microglial PRRs is also involved in neurodegeneration (Cho et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2005; Block et al. 2007; Pei et al.

2007). These and other PH-797804 results suggest that noninfectious stimuli might bind microglial PRRs activating their killing mechanisms, which normally would be used to kill pathogens, but are unintentionally used to kill neurons in noninfectious CNS diseases (Block et al. 2007; Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Griffiths et al. 2007). From the experimental data described Calpain above, it is possible to infer that microglia are beneficial neuroimmune cells that might become detrimental in pathological conditions. It is likely that during neural disorders, a mosaic of detrimental and beneficial stimuli are released by altered neurons, glia, blood vessels, and other sources into the extracellular space, and microglial cells interpret them by using their surface receptors. We hypothesize that these harmful and beneficial stimuli are released into specific anatomical niches along damaged areas triggering both beneficial and deleterious actions of microglia. Depending on the CNS-affected area and disease’s etiology, both noxious and beneficial microglial phenotypes might coexist along the pathological environment.

Effects of intrahippocampal isoproterenol on fEPSP slope–spike co

Effects of intrahippocampal isoproterenol on fEPSP slope–spike coupling in the dentate gyrus Input–output curves for the 10 levels of stimulation were taken prior to baseline and at the termination of recording (data not shown). The only significant change (P < 0.05) occurred in the 10 μmol/L ISO group in which there was a leftward shift in the input–output relationship. This shift reflected the occurrence of larger Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical spikes postinfusion for the same stimulation

levels more than 3 h after infusion initiation, a result consistent with the long-term increase in spike size with 10 μmol/L ISO. fEPSP slope/population spike correlations In the majority of granule cells norepinephrine produces a direct increase in membrane resistance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that is mediated by β-adrenoceptors (Lacaille and Schwartzkroin 1988). We hypothesized that effective β-adrenoceptor activation see more should increase the EPSP initiation of cell firing. Slope-spike correlations were examined to address this question. There were no significant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical correlations between the fEPSP slope and spike size prior to infusion. Immediately after infusion (postinfusion onset 15 min) there was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.76, P < 0.05) in the aCSF group that was not sustained (r = 0.52, ns at 180 min; see

Fig. 3A). In contrast, the 10 μmol/L ISO group exhibited significant positive correlations between EPSP field slope and population spike size at 110 min (r = 0.94, P < 0.005; not shown) and

180 min (r = 0.80, P < 0.05) postinfusion, the last two time points measured (see Fig. 3B). No Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical other group showed significant correlations between fEPSP slope and population spike size postinfusion. Figure 3 The correlational fEPSP slope and population spike relationship before and after infusion of vehicle (aCSF) or 10 μmol/L ISO. No relationship was found in any group during the preinfusion period (solid line in A and B for examples). (A) ... Discussion Effects of intrahippocampal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ISO infusion on the perforant path-dentate gyrus fEPSP slope The present pattern of results reveals Montelukast Sodium a β-adrenoceptor-induced long-term depression (LTD) of the perforant path-evoked fEPSP in the dentate gyrus at the lowest level of receptor activation in this study (0.1 μmol/L). A weaker level of depression was also seen with the next higher dose (1 μmol/L). Winson and Dahl (1985) using ISO iontophoresis in the mid-dendritic layer reported depression of the perforant path fEPSP; however, fEPSP depression occurred with all noradrenergic agents applied. In vitro exclusively lateral perforant path activation paired with 1 μmol/L ISO produces a LTD of the fEPSP, while medial perforant path pairing initiates long-term potentiation at the same concentration (Dahl and Sarvey 1990). However, in this study, no attempt was made to isolate lateral perforant path fibers.

Of patients with visual perceptual pathology in a given condition

Of patients with visual perceptual pathology in a given condition, the percentage reporting each symptom category is coded red (> … Figure 4. Caricatures of the deafferentation (CBS), cholinergic (Ach) and serotonergic (5-HT) visual perceptual syndromes. The deafferentation syndrome has three subsyndromic forms shown as light green regions, top = parietal; middle = superior temporal; bottom … The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical second syndrome (prototypical disorder PD – see refs 39,84,85) differs from the first in the conspicuous absence of simple hallucinations. Patients experience illusions and fully formed hallucinations, typically of mundane figures or animals (caricatured in Figure 4 Ach).

The visual symptoms are often associated with extra-campine and multimodality hallucinations and delusional elaboration. AD,86,87 DLB,88 and peduncular lesions89 are associated with a chemical structure similar syndrome which seems to relate to ascending brainstem neurotransmitter dysfunction, particularly in the cholinergic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical system14 (see ref 90 for review of cholinergic hypothesis). The third syndrome (prototypical disorder LSD flashback91 – now hallucinogen persisting

perception disorder [HPPD]92) consists of tessellopsia, visual snow, palinopsia, polyopia (multiple copies of an object) and metamorphopsia (caricatured in Figure 4, 5-HT). Patients rarely experience complex visual hallucinations, delusions, or hallucinations in other Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical modalities. The same spectrum of disorders is described in the classical peripheral and central vestibular

lesion literature,93 migraine aura, and migraine aura status (persistent positive visual phenomena),94,95 MDMA,96 and 5-HT2 antagonism.97 Although Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the underlying mechanism of this syndrome is unclear, many of the conditions in which it occurs Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are linked to the serotonergic system. Figure 5 outlines a treatment algorithm for the three visual perceptual syndromes. For each, it is important to: i) review medication to minimize anticholinergic load; ii) consider whether the syndrome may have been precipitated by concurrent infection (often a urinary tract infection in the elderly); and iii) if necessary, optimize vision. The question of whether to investigate depends largely on the match between the syndrome and clinical context. Hallucinations of a familiar dog in a patient with Oxalosuccinic acid Parkinson’s disease would not warrant further investigation, but hallucinations of grid patterns confined to one hemifield might prompt neuroimaging of the visual pathways and cortex. Similarly, prolonged hallucinations of whispering figures in a patient with macular disease might prompt a psychiatric review, whereas a brief hallucination of an Edwardian tea party would not. CBS may be treated with the reassurance of a likely resolution with time, although patients may be warned that symptoms can re-occur following further visual deterioration.

138,174,175 Carbamazepine and valproic acid have been observed to

138,174,175 Carbamazepine and valproic acid have been observed to be effective in bipolar disorder176,177 and are often considered as an adjunctive therapy

in patients with schizophrenia. However, these trials included relatively few subjects. Positive effects seen with carbamazepine and valproate have been modest and usually involved nonspecific improvement in areas such as behavior and social adjustment. Carbamazepine should be used with caution because it is a potent enzyme inducer and can also reduce the blood level of haloperidol by as much as 50% .178 Carbamazepine should not be used in combination with lozapine. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical There are few data for newer anticonvulsants; however, a few positive results were seen with lamotrigine adjunctive treatment with clozapine.179 Electroconvulsive therapy (EXT) for treatment-refractory schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has

had favorable response in shortterm trials when added to antipsychotic medications. However, in spite of more than five decades of widespread clinical use, the administration of ECT lacks a strong research base. A recent literature review180 reports that about 20% patients will have improvement with this combination. Several recent case reports have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical noted improvements and controlled trials are currently underway.181,185 The combined treatment with clozapine appears to be well tolerated and associated with few adverse effects. However, the issues of persistence of effect and long-term find more maintenance of these patients have not yet been adequately Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical addressed. Combined antipsychotic therapy has recently drawn some attention, as many patients (approximately 15%) currently are treated in this way.186 While this use is growing, little research is available to support this treatment approach.187 The most consistent data thus far come from a few case reports suggesting added improvements to clozapine treatment by the addition of risperidone.188-192 Two cases of olanzapine addition to clozapine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have

reported favorable results.193 There is report of the combined use of risperidone and olanzapine with success.194 Other reports include the addition of pimozide, sulpiride, nd loxapine to treatment-resistant patients Mephenoxalone treated with clozapine.195-198 The addition of a antipsychotic with D2blocking abilities may enhance clozapine treatment in partial responders, but large-scale studies are needed. Other adjunctive therapies reported are associated with very little data or have not been clearly found to be useful for treating symptoms of schizophrenia. There have been some reports of benzodiazepines,130,199 but no clear benefits in symptoms other than associated anxiety have been found.128,131,200,201 There are historical studies suggesting that β-blockers may be useful in refractory schizophrenia.

This ultimately improves the quality of life in the advanced stag

This ultimately improves the quality of life in the advanced stages of cancer. Endoscopic stenting is preferable to operative gastrojejunostomy in terms of faster return to fluids and solids, and reduced morbidity for patients with a limited life span. The main drawback to operative bypass is the high incidence of delayed gastric emptying, particularly in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this group of patients with symptomatic obstruction (13). Malignant gastric outlet obstruction represents often the terminal stage in pancreatic cancer. Between 5% and 25% of patients with pancreatic cancer ultimately experience malignant gastric outlet obstruction. In the present study 22 patients received gastric or duodenal stents. Uncovered

stents are used because they adhere better to the mucosa. Unfortunately common duodenal stent-related complications are a recurrence of symptoms due to stent clogging (tissue

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ingrowth/overgrowth and food impaction) and stent migration. Stent dysfunction is reported in up to 25% of patients (14). Complications Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are ingrowth or overgrowth of tumours in 12%, bleeding in 3%, stent migration in 1.5%, and perforation in 0.5% (15). In the present study only tumour ingrowth and/or overgrowth was seen in 7 patients. These complications can be usually managed endoscopically, thereby restoring food passage (16). In a paper by Lee et al. it was reported that there was no difference in major complications between stent placement Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical versus surgery in cases of palliation for colon cancer. The patients treated with stenting had fewer early complications which is understandable since laparotomy is not required (17). Stent placement in the colon has its complications, perforation in 9%, migration in 5%, and check details occlusion in 9% (18). Placement of a stent in the colon Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical gives good and adequate palliation given the fact that all patients in the present study had passage of stool and were treated effectively for the obstruction. Clogging due to faecal impaction only occurred in two cases. This low percentage can be explained by the standard use of stool softeners and laxatives. No single

case of perforation occurred. This is in contradiction with the literature. Especially in cases of colon stent placement perforations are reported (19). Of course this complication is a worst case scenario because the patient was already unfit for surgery. Happily this never occurred. The possible explanation for 4��8C the perforations in the literature are the fact that stent placement was used as a bridge to surgery in patients presenting with acute bowel obstruction with pre-stenotic dilatation. In the present series all patient receiving a colon stent did not have an acute bowel obstruction. Their presentation was more chronic intermittent obstruction without pre-stenotic dilatation. In addition, the majority also suffered from malignant peritonitis.

A predominant symptom is defined as the symptom with the highest

A predominant symptom is defined as the symptom with the highest ranking and all other symptoms are>=2 / 10 lower ranked. Complexity is defined as>=3 symptoms with>=6/10, with the exception of fatigue and anorexia (threshold>=9/10). To explore patients’ subjective adaptation to illness and burden of treatment two linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) indicators are included, assessing perceived SB590885 manufacturer adjustment to chronic illness (PACIS); [34] (‘no effort at all’ – ‘a great deal of effort) and overall treatment burden (‘not at all’ – ’severely’). The indicator for PACIS was confirmed to be responsive to cytotoxic side-effects, mental distress, and psychosocial dysfunction in patients with

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical early breast cancer [36]. It is suitable to describe patients’ adaptation over time. The instruments are validated [37]. The indicator for overall treatment burden has been validated regarding side-effects of antiemetic and cytotoxic

therapy [38]. As indicator for decision-making preferences, the difference in number of mismatched decision-making preferences Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between week 3 and 6 will be compared between the two arms. Patients’ preferences for involvement in decision making will be assessed by a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical measure adapted from previous studies [39]. The patient chooses from among five categories ranging from ‘the doctor should make the decision using all that he/she knows about the treatment’ to ‘I should make the decision using all that I know and learn about the treatment’. In addition the physician Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is asked to choose from among the same five categories how he/she estimates the patients’ preferences. A mismatch is defined as follows: the patient ranks #1 or #2 and the physician #4 or #5 or vice versa. For neutral patients or physicians no mismatch is possible per definition. Sample size calculation Sample sizes are calculated for an inequality test for two means of change in QoL in a cluster randomized design using the software package

NCSS 2004 – PASS 2002, according to the formulation of Donner and Klar, assuming a two-sided Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical significance level of 0.05, and a statistical power of 0.8 [40]. Further assumptions on design parameters are an overall variance (s2) of 400, an intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC, estimated by the ratio of between-cluster variation to overall variance) of 0.05 , an effect size (between-arm difference in G-QoL to be detected) of 10, and the cluster size (the number of evaluable patients per physician) [40]. For the cluster size several options are considered, but it is expected to stop Cell Host & Microbe the trial at a cluster size of 8 with 12 physicians per arm, yielding a total sample size of 192 evaluable patients. Since the initial estimate of the ICC might not be appropriate, an interim analysis to adjust the sample size as suggested in Lake et al. is foreseen [41]. Once data for the first 100 patients are available, estimates of within-cluster variation and between-cluster variation are obtained. If the resulting ICC has to be at least 1.

2012; McGurk et al 2004; Minzenberg et al 2004; Pae, 2013; Trac

2012; McGurk et al. 2004; Minzenberg et al. 2004; Pae, 2013; Tracy et al. 1998]. The effects of the muscarinergic antagonism had not been investigated thoroughly in a clinical setting at the initiation of the study.

Sertindole and olanzapine are both atypical antipsychotics [Nielsen and Nielsen, 2009], with differences in receptor affinities, especially with sertindole not showing any marked affinity for the muscarinergic receptor whereas olanzapine has a high affinity and an antagonizing effect [Correll, 2010]. In addition, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sertindole does not show a tendency to induce Parkinsonism in clinical trial treated patients [Seeman and Tallerico, 1998], thereby excluding the need for concomitant anticholinergic drugs. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of sertindole and olanzapine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on cognition in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, utilizing a computerized cognitive test battery. Material and methods Design The study is a 12-week, double-blind randomized head-to-head study in which all participants are randomized to either sertindole or olanzapine. Participants were recruited in Denmark and Sweden, but due to poor recruitment in the Swedish center (one participant) only data from Denmark are reported. Primary outcome was change in cognition as measured by the CANTAB test battery (Cambridge Cognition Ltd, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Bottisham, Cambridge, UK) [Lowe and Rabbitt, 1998; Sahakian and Owen, 1992].

Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive either sertindole or olanzapine. The initial dose of sertindole was 4 mg, which was increased by 4 mg every fourth day until 16 mg was reached. Treatment doses of sertindole were between Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 16 and 24 mg. The dose of 24 mg was only used in exceptionally cases, as the risk of QTc prolongation is dose dependent. The initial dose of olanzapine was 10 mg and the flexible dose range was between 10 and 20 mg. All participants were treated with a tablet of sertindole or an identical placebo tablet, and an Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical encapsulated olanzapine tablet or a dummy tablet, so participants were either on sertindole or olanzapine throughout the study period. Block size randomization was conducted by the pharmacy

Carnitine dehydrogenase by computer and randomization block size was variable. Disclosure of blinding was done after reporting of PANSS values to the pharmacy. Participants Men and women, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, diagnosed with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision diagnosis of schizophrenia F20.0–F20.3 and F20.9 (paranoid, hebephrenic, catatonic, undifferentiated or unspecified subtypes) were eligible for participation [World Health Organization, 1992]. Patients were excluded if an electrocardiogram showed QTc prolongation or if QT prolongation over 500 ms was shown after initiation of study drugs. Before inclusion, normal levels of potassium or magnesium were required, as well as a negative pregnancy test for women. All women were required to use a safe form of birth control.

We had one case where the person had visited the ED 10 times in t

We had one case where the person had visited the ED 10 times in the past year and over half of those times she was discharged with narcotics. He (the attending) used the Ohio substance abuse monitoring site and found that the patient receives 120 pills/month from a family doctor and appears to supplement through the ED 3-4 times per month. He politely went in and explained to her that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical she has a family doctor who prescribes narcotic medicine for her and he was

uncomfortable doing so. He explained it was not his job to refill narcotic medications when the patient has a physician who prescribes them and that she should make an appointment for the next day. The patient was surprisingly understanding. This narrative is similar to the previously discussed respect story, with a patient using the ED in a way the student feels is inappropriate. However, this narrative focuses more heavily on the aspects of how the conversation

took place and the communication techniques used to professionally Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical convey his message. Professionalism narratives were infrequently categorized under the teaching and learning environment domain. Within this domain, two themes were notable. The first, creating an (un)welcoming environment, contains predominantly negative stories. One student writes: It was my first shift in the ED, which my attending had already grumbled about when she first (met) me, and it happened to be a really busy day. Unfortunately I had been Natural Product Library high throughput waiting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to staff a patient for a while, and she was the only attending around so I approached her. She

was standing, working on a computer, so I walked up and stood several feet away, waiting for a break in what she was doing. I didn’t say anything because I didn’t want to interrupt so I just waited. She eventually turned to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical me and says, “You need to chill out!” and angrily turns back to her computer. I understand she was busy but I think there could have been a nicer way to tell me I needed to staff my patient with the other attending. The other theme within the teaching and learning environment domain worth noting is capitalizing on teaching opportunities, which had a majority of positive narratives. Another student explains: I was very impressed by the dedication to excellence shown by one Nature Reviews Cancer attending. Although most attendings will offer brief pearls in order to redirect residents or students when they are staffing patients, I rarely see attendings go beyond this level. During one shift I was surprised when one doc called together all the residents and myself for teaching. He thought that this point was important enough that it warranted breaking the hectic pace of the ED. These two narratives offer completely different attending behaviors when teaching is involved.

15 Teaching that incorporates the various aspects of

15 Teaching that incorporates the various aspects of intelligence Increases academic performance relative to conventional teaching.16 Sternberg has argued that intelligence is at least somewhat malleable throughout the lifespan. Biological bases of intelligence Biological approaches to intelligence directly examine the brain and its functioning.17 Intelligence as measured by IQ tests appears to be localized, In part, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and across the neocortex. People with higher Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical IQs show higher levels of functioning in the

superior parietal, temporal, and occipital cortexes as well as In subcortical regions of the brain, especially the striatum.18 Integration of functioning in the parietal and frontal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lobes appears to be especially important.19 Several different biological approaches have been used, most comparing biologically based measures to IQ. Neural efficiency Complex patterns of electrical activity In the brain as prompted by specific stimuli correlate with scores on IQ tests. In particular,

speed of conduction of neural impulses may correlate with intelligence as measured by IQ tests.20 Some investigators have suggested that this research supports a view that intelligence is based, at least in part, on neural efficiency.21 Additional support for neural efficiency as a measure of intelligence can be found from studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of how the brain metabolizes selleck chemical glucose during mental activities. Haier and his colleagues have found that higher intelligence correlates with reduced levels of glucose Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical metabolism during problem-solving tasks.22 Furthermore, Haier

and colleagues found that cerebral efficiency increases as a result of learning a relatively complex task involving visuospatial manipulations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (for example, in the computer game Tetris).23 As a result of practice, individuals with higher IQ demonstrate lower cerebral glucose metabolism overall. But they also show more specifically localized metabolism of glucose. In most areas of their brains, persons with higher IQ show less glucose metabolism, but in selected areas of their brains (thought to be important to the task at hand), they show higher levels of glucose metabolism. Thus, people with higher IQ may have learned how to use their brains more efficiently (see refs 24,25). These results are not consistent throughout the entire literature. Studies using electroencephalographic Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology (EEG) methods have also noted a pattern of neural efficiency in Intelligent individuals. Using EEG methods, Neubauer and colleagues noted that greatest neural efficiency was observed in the brain areas associated with the individual’s greatest ability.24 Today, however, event-related potentials (ERPs) are used more widely than EEGs In the study of biological bases of intelligence. Research has examined the relation between intelligence test scores and P300.

However, no clear etiological model has been defined POCD may li

However, no clear etiological model has been defined. POCD may likely be of multifactorial etiology, with many factors contributing

small effects to the added risk. Future studies will hopefully shed light on these factors and their Interactions.
Dementia is one of the major causes of loss of autonomy, and the main reason for the Institutionalization of the elderly. Epidemiological studies conducted in the last 10 years have shown that the prevalence of dementia is close to 5% in the population over 65 years of age. These studies #Abl kinase domain mutation keyword# have also shown that its prevalence increases sharply with age, and as a result of the expected shift in population demographics, the incidence and prevalence of dementia are expected to increase dramatically over the coming decades. The number of demented patients worldwide is projected to increase from 243 million in 2001 to 81.1 million in 2040.1 Significantly, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the vast majority of new cases are expected to appear in developing countries. For example, the number of demented persons in China and India will increase by 300% during this period.1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Prevention and management of dementia are therefore a major public health challenge in the majority of countries around the world. As a general rule, the occurrence

of dementia is not a sudden phenomenon. It is the final stage of cognitive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical deterioration, the speed of which varies from one individual to the other. However, even in cases where its development is rapid, the process is measured in terms of months. Taking into account the life expectancy of individuals at risk, retarding the development of dementia for a few months may have important consequences on the prevalence of dementia.2 Such expectations have been raised in recent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical years with the discovery of a relationship between hypertension and dementia. Overall, published studies suggest that high blood pressure increases the risk

of cognitive decline and dementia, and therefore, that lowering blood pressure might reduce this risk. This paper will review the evidence for this, and will discuss some of the important questions that remain unanswered. Hypertension and cognitive decline: evidence from observational Cediranib (AZD2171) studies It has been known for decades that there is a direct, causal relationship between high blood pressure and the risk of stroke, and therefore the risk of dementia (Figure 1). It is common knowledge that large strokes or multiple strokes contribute directly to cognitive decline and to the risk of dementia, consequently called vascular dementia. However, it is only in the past 10 years that studies have reported that hypertension may be related to cognitive decline and dementia without the occurrence of a stroke. Figure 1. Diagrammatic representation of the consequences of hypertension on the brain.