“OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central precocious puberty and its

“OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central precocious puberty and its postponement with a (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) GnRH agonist are complex conditions, the final effects of which on bone mass are difficult to define. We evaluated bone mass, body composition, and bone remodeling in two groups of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty, namely one group that was assessed at diagnosis and a second group that was assessed three years after GnRH agonist treatment.

METHODS: The precocious puberty diagnosis buy GSK2126458 and precocious puberty

treatment groups consisted of 12 girls matched for age and weight to corresponding control groups of 12 (CD) and 14 (CT) girls, respectively. Bone mineral density and body composition were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry.

Lumbar spine bone mineral density was estimated after correction for bone age and the mathematical calculation of volumetric bone mineral density. CONEP: CAAE-0311.0.004.000-06.

RESULTS: Lumbar spine bone mineral density was slightly increased in individuals diagnosed with precocious puberty compared with controls; however, after correction for bone age, this tendency disappeared (CD = -0.74 +/- 0.9 vs. precocious puberty diagnosis = -1.73 +/- 1.2). The bone mineral density values of girls Bucladesine cost in the precocious puberty treatment group did not differ from those observed in the CT group.

CONCLUSION: There is an increase in bone mineral density in girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty. Our data indicate that the increase in bone mineral density in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty is insufficient

to compensate for the marked advancement in bone age observed at diagnosis. GnRH agonist treatment seems to have no detrimental effect on bone mineral density.”
“Objective: To measure the prior knowledge about sleep disorders and patient’s ability ACY-738 manufacturer to report their problems adequately to health professionals. Methods: We analyzed 208 patient’s records and extracted the following information: date of birth, gender, medical diagnostic hypotheses, patient’s primary complaint in their words, considering the most appropriated semantic approximation to the perceptual phenomena, either by their own or by reasoning information from the partner. We compared the agreement (Kappa’s test) between patient’s complaint and medical diagnosis. The 95% confidence interval was used to analyze proportions. Results: We found strong correlations for bruxism; moderate for snoring, insomnia, nightmares, somniloquy, and restless legs syndrome; fair for excessive movement during sleep (EMDS) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). Conclusions: The observed correlations were heterogeneous, but important diseases such as OSA and EMDS in children showed fair and weak correlations.

The minimum driving forces for fcc Al-based and hcp Zr-based Al-Z

The minimum driving forces for fcc Al-based and hcp Zr-based Al-Zr solid solutions to amorphize are calculated to be about -0.05 and -0.03 eV/atom, respectively, whereas the maximum driving force is found to be -0.23 eV/atom at the alloy stoichiometry of Al(60)Zr(40). A thermodynamics parameter (gamma) over bar, defined

as the ratio of the driving force to the formation energy of the solid solution, is further proposed to indicate the glass-forming ability of an Al-Zr alloy. Thermodynamics calculations show that the glass-forming ability of the Al(56)Zr(44) alloy is the largest, implying that the Al(56)Zr(44) amorphous alloy is more ready to form than other alloys in the Al-Zr system. Besides, Voronoi analysis found that there exists a strong correlation see more between the coordinate number and structure. Amorphization could result in increase of coordinate numbers and about 1.5% volume-expansion. The volume-expansion

induced by amorphization can be attributed to two factors, i.e., the total bond number of the Al-Zr amorphous phase is greater than that of the corresponding solid solution, and the averaged bond length of the Al-Zr amorphous phase is longer than that of the corresponding solid solution. For the Al-Zr alloys, especially for the Al-Zr amorphous phase, there exists a negative chemical micro-inhomogeneity in the alloys, suggesting that metallic bonds prefer to NCT-501 inhibitor be formed between the atoms of dissimilar species. Finally, it is found that there is a weak correspondence between the bond-angle distributions of Al-Zr amorphous alloys and the solid solutions. It is further suggested that the configuration of Al-Zr amorphous alloys embodies some hybrid imprint of bcc, fcc, and hcp structures.

More interestingly, the short-range order is also observed in the bond-angle distributions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3585869]“
“Cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis can appear early in the course of the disease and may not be evident to HM781-36B in vivo the clinician if not investigated formally. Clinical neuropsychological evaluation with these patients has main peculiarities: disabilities, fatigue, relapses, medical treatment, psychological problems, that have to be seriously taken into consideration in choosing the tests and interpreting the profile. The peculiarity of cognitive decline in MS suggests an examination primarily of attentive-executive and memory domains, with Pasat and Symbol Digit Modalities Test, strongly recommended, together with memory test. The utilization of extensive or brief cognitive batteries depends on the different goals of the neuropsychological evaluation.

For every 30-min increase in anesthesia duration, the estimated a

For every 30-min increase in anesthesia duration, the estimated average decrease in developmental test scores

ranged from 1.1 to 2.9 (P ranged from < 0.001 to 0.30). Similar, but weaker findings were observed with surgery duration and total duration of inhaled anesthesia. Inverse relations between exposure amounts and neurodevelopment were stronger in children with non-sagittal synostosis.

Conclusions: Average neurodevelopmental scores were lower among children experiencing longer surgeries and higher exposures to inhaled anesthesia. These associations may be due to anesthesia exposure, nonspecific effects of surgery, or unmeasured variables that correlate with surgery duration. Further study of potential causal mechanisms is warranted.”
“We promote an efficient method named harmony response analysis (HRA) as a comparison with transient response analysis and supercell plane wave expansion Small molecule library (supercell PWE) to study the behavior of Lamb wave in silicon-based one-dimensional composite plates. To implement HRA for dealing with Lamb waves WH-4-023 cost in phononic-crystal plates, the viscous-spring artificial boundaries are employed to eliminate the boundary reflection in maximum. With the calculation of displacement

field, the propagations of elastic waves under different frequency loads (inside/outside the completed band gap) are investigated in details. The method is then applied in plates both with and without substrate. We further study the plates with quasiperiodicity (generalized Fibonacci systems and double-period system) and investigate the change in band gaps

induced by the quasiperiodicity. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3259401]“
“(PACE 2009; 1357-1358).”
“Background: In this study, we analyze the impact of the choice of either the left or right brachiocephalic vein (BCV) on the cannulation success when using the ultrasound-guided supraclavicular in-plane technique approach to the longitudinally viewed BCV in infants.

Methods: The selleck central vascular protocols of 183 infants were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: The weight ranged from 0.7 to 10 kg. Central venous catheter placement was eventually successful in 98.9%. In 141 patients (82.9%), the left BCV was successfully punctured on the first attempt, in 23 patients (13.5%) after 2 and in 6 patients (3.5%) after 3 attempts. The right BCV was successfully punctured on the first attempt in five patients (38.4%), in three patients (15.3%) after two and in five patients (38.4%) after three attempts, respectively. Significantly more puncture attempts were required for the right BCV (chi-square analysis: P < 0.01). There was also a significant improvement of the success rate over the time course of the case series (Jonckheere-test: P < 0.01).

Conclusion: It seems to be easier to cannulate the left BCV than the right BCV when using this ultrasound-guided supraclavicular strict in-plane technique.

It is imperative to know the various pathophysiological processes

It is imperative to know the various pathophysiological processes that underlie the causation of DO to select proper management approach.”
“The magnetic properties of annealed Fe84-xSi4B8P4Cux(x=0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5) soft-magnetic alloys prepared by melt-spinning were investigated. In this alloy system, the appropriate addition of the Cu element Tariquidar solubility dmso promotes the precipitation of alpha-Fe(Si), as well as inhibits

the precipitation of other phases. The saturation magnetic flux density B-s increases and the coercivity H-c markedly decreases simultaneously with increasing Cu content until x 1.25. The Fe82.75Si4B8P4Cu1.25 alloy annealed at 873 K for 1.8 ks shows a high Bs of 1.83 T and excellent soft-magnetic properties such as a low H-c of 2.1 A/m and a high effect permeability of 31 600. It is found that a 1%-1.25% addition of Cu is effective for the improvement of soft-magnetic properties for the present

alloy system. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3535290]“
“Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a mixed flora of pathogenic anaerobic bacteria and associated with risks of pathologic conditions. In the present study, therapy with a local antiseptic spray (octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol, OHP) for 7 or 14 days is compared against the standard local therapy of BV (metronidazole) in a Serbian patient population.

As much as 450 women were treated in groups with either 7 days metronidazole vaginal tablets, 7 days OHP, or 14 days OHP. Control smears were taken after each treatment period.

In total, 63.2% of the women were without indications VE-821 in vitro of BV after therapy (metronidazole: 61.0%, OHP 7 days: 57.6%, and OHP 14 days: 71.0%).

Significantly fewer women were affected from infections after treatment with 14 days OHP compared to OHP for 7 days.

Octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol spray was as effective PD173074 ic50 as the standard therapy with metronidazole. Patients stated that OHP was more comfortable, easier to apply, and side effects were lesser.”
“For many applications, the internal magnetic domain structure of magnetic nanoparticles may play a critical role in the determination of their collective magnetic properties. Here we utilize polarization analyzed small angle neutron scattering (PASANS) to study the individual magnetic morphologies of an interacting aqueous Fe3O4 nanoparticle system. Our results demonstrate that the total magnetic moment of the colloid is randomized, as expected in low fields, while the nuclear structure is anisotropic. Model fits indicate that the magnetic domains within the nanoparticle core at 1.5 mT have dimensions that approximate those of the structural grains perpendicular to the field, but the domains extend over multiple grains along the field direction. The asymmetry in the magnetic domain formation in weak fields undoubtedly contributes to the magnetic anisotropy and thus to the enhanced heating reported for hyperthermia applications of these systems.

In addition, high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprot

In addition, high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are risks factors for development of diabetes mellitus in the future.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between 1-h PG levels and serum lipid profiles in individuals with NGT.

METHODS: We enrolled 736 individuals with NGT who underwent a 75-g OGTT. They were divided into 2 groups, those with 1-h PG levels < 155 mg/dL (n = 543) and those with 1-h PG levels >= 155 mg/dL (n = 193). Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess correlations

between 1-h PG levels and lipid profiles.

RESULTS: click here The multiple linear regression analyses showed that 1-h PG levels negatively correlated with HDL-C in individuals with NGT who had 1-h PG levels >= 155 mg/dL as well as those with 1-h PG levels < 155 mg/dL (beta = -0.137, P = .001 and beta = -0.214, P = .003, respectively). In addition, 1-h PG levels positively correlated with log-transformed TG/HDL-C ratio in both groups (beta = 0.098, P = .032 and beta = 0.152, P = .035, respectively). Moreover, even after adjusting for confounding parameters, TG was higher and HDL-C was lower in individuals with NGT who had 1-h PG levels >= 155 mg/dL compared with those who had 1-h PG levels < 155 mg/dL.

CONCLUSION: HDL-C levels and TG/HDL-C ratios closely correlate with 1-h PG levels

in individuals with NGT. Crown Copyright(C) this website Fer-1 2014 Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf of National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.”
“Contents Catecholamines play an important role in embryogenesis, and data obtained in the rodent model indicate that they can act even during the preimplantation period of development. Using RT-PCR with specific oligonucleotide primers distinguishing among all members of the adrenergic receptor family, we examined expression of adrenergic receptors in bovine and rabbit oocytes, morulas and blastocysts. We found several profiles of adrenoceptor mRNA expression. Transcripts for some

receptor subtypes (bovine alpha 2 receptors, rabbit 2A, 2C, 1 and 2 receptors) were detected at all examined stages, which suggests receptor expression throughout (or at most stages) the preimplantation developmental period. Expression in oocytes but not at later stages was found in only one adrenoceptor subtype (rabbit 1B). In contrast, mRNA for several adrenoceptors was found in embryos but not in oocytes (bovine beta adrenoceptors and rabbit 1A). Nucleotide sequences of our PCR products amplified in rabbit oocytes, and preimplantation embryos represent the first published mRNA sequences (partial sequences coding at least one transmembrane region) of rabbit 2C, 1 and 2 adrenoceptors. Our results suggest that the expression of adrenergic receptors can be a general feature of mammalian oocytes and preimplantation embryos.


“OBJECTIVES: Smoothened Agonist chemical structure The sero-prevalence of co-infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis D virus (HDV) is well known in many European countries, starting from 6.8% in Germany to more than 27% in some Turkish areas. To gain a better description of this infection in Switzerland, and to characterise those affected, a questionnaire was sent to all Swiss gastroenterologists, hepatologists

and infectologists.

METHODS: A questionnaire was received by 349 physicians which asked them to report on all HBV- and HDV-infected patients seen at their units/offices.

RESULTS: A total of 101 HDV-positive patients seen by 78 specialists were analysed. The physicians were in charge of 1’699 patients with chronic hepatitis B, giving a 5.9% prevalence of HDV infection in HBV-positive patients. A predominance of males (75%) from Switzerland (39%), and of African origin (21%) was recorded. Most had been contaminated by intravenous drug use (62%), followed by vertical transmission (15%), sexual contact (13%) or transfusion with blood or blood products (2%). The majority A 1155463 (74%) had a very low (< 10(3) UI/ml) HBV viral load and 75% were HBeAg-negative. A total of 76% percent of those who had a liver biopsy had

significant fibrosis (>= F2), and only 21% had received standard therapy (interferon or pegylated interferon-a). Overall, 10% recovered spontaneously (anti-HBs-positive).

CONCLUSION: With Bcl2 inhibitor a prevalence of 5.9% of hepatitis D in HBsAg-positive patients, Switzerland seems less affected than most other European countries, however, it is possible that this infection is under-diagnosed. Intravenous drug use was

the main risk factor. Associated advanced liver disease was also very common.”
“Study Design. Review of published literature.

Objective. To review the available medical literature reporting results after minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) and evaluate functional and radiographic outcomes with those following open TLIF and open posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedures.

Summary of Background Data. Minimally invasive spine techniques aim to reduce approach-related surgical morbidity without compromising operative and clinical outcomes. MIS TLIF is increasingly being used for the management of various lumbar degenerative diseases. Despite the limited number of well-designed clinical studies, the available published data suggest potential advantages over its open posterior-approach lumbar interbody fusion counterparts. Such benefits include less intraoperative blood loss, less need for blood transfusions, shorter hospital course, and less postoperative pain.


5 GHz, insertion

5 GHz, insertion PR-171 cost loss -9 dB and a resonant -3 dB bandwidth as narrow as 12.5 MHz.”
“Eleven compounds were isolated from the culture of an endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. Neoaurantiaca in Salvia

miltiorrhiza Bunge. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods as cyclo-(Gly-L-Ala) (1), cyclo-(L-Ala-L-Ala) (2), cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) (3), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Ser) (4), cyclo-(L-Ala-trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro) (5), cyclo-(L-Val-L-Pro) (6), cyclo-(Gly-L-Tyr) (7), cyclo-(L-Ala-L-Tyr) (8), cyclo-(L-Tyr-trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro) (9), 3-methylhydantoin (10) and 2-piperidinone (11). All these compounds were isolated from this bacterium for the first time. The brine shrimp lethality, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds were evaluated. The results indicated that some cyclodipeptides may play an important

role in plantbacteria interactions.”
“BACKGROUND Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon superficial fibrohistiocytic tumor. It was originally described as a low-grade dermal tumor of atypical spindle cells, but this view has changed, and it is generally considered to be a tumor of intermediate malignant potential.

OBJECTIVE To review the current literature on AFX pertaining to epidemiology, pathogenesis and etiology, clinical presentation, histology, immunohistochemistry, prognosis and follow-up, and treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Extensive literature review was conducted using OVID Medline and Pubmed searching for articles GDC-0941 supplier relating to AFX.

RESULTS AFX typically presents as a red or pink papule or nodule on the head or neck of an elderly man. The pathogenesis is most commonly related to ultraviolet radiation. It can clinically mimic other cutaneous malignancies and histologically can mimic squamous cell carcinoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry is important in making the distinction. The prognosis is generally excellent, although

buy ARN-509 there are rare cases of metastatic disease. There is a higher cure rate with Mohs’ micrographic surgery than with wide local excision.

CONCLUSIONS People with AFX generally have had significant ultraviolet radiation exposure. They should be examined at least every 6 months for recurrence, metastasis, and the development of additional skin cancers.”
“BACKGROUND Management of lower extremity wounds after Mohs micrographic surgery can pose a challenge to the surgeon. Postoperative reactive edema and inflammation can lead to a painful and protracted healing course. Unna boots deliver zinc oxide to the wound bed and surrounding skin while providing compression and occlusion of the wound.

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the utility of weekly Unna boot therapy in decreasing postoperative edema, inflammation, and morbidity; minimizing postoperative wound care; and improving the rate of wound healing in patients with lower leg surgical defects.

(J Cardiac Fail 2012;18:159-172)”

work reports

(J Cardiac Fail 2012;18:159-172)”

work reports a systematic comparative study of the technological properties of natural lattices and rubbers extracted from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis [(Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.] (clone RRIM 600) trees from 11 collections in Brazil throughout 2004. Natural rubber latex SCH727965 mouse particle sizes and distributions were quite similar with an average diameter around 1 mu m. Molecular weight, Wallace plasticity, and Mooney viscosity values were approximately the same for both rubbers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy peaks characteristic of natural rubber were observed for both Hancornia and Hevea. The measured differences in technological properties included lower values for Hancornia dry rubber content, % ash, % nitrogen, and plasticity retention index but higher value for acetone extract. Interestingly, nitrogen and protein content were much lower in Hancornia, suggesting that it may have important applications in nonallergic rubber uses. This represents the first

report of lacticifer-produced low-protein natural rubber. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 2986-2991, 2009″
“The effects of oxygen concentration and film thickness were studied on the microstructural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe65Co35-O alloy films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The films showed the best magnetic softness with a large saturation magnetization of 21.5 kG, low coercivities of 2.8 and 2.1 Oe in easy and hard axes, respectively, and a high resistivity selleck inhibitor of 2215 mu cm at an optimized condition of an oxygen gas flow ratio of 1.0% and a film thickness of 105 nm. Such an excellent magnetic softness can be attributed to grain refinement

caused by the addition of very low dose of oxygen, which basically did not lead to the full formation of Fe and/or Co oxide phases with low saturation magnetizations. The microwave permeability measurement indicated that the addition of very low dose of oxygen could improve the response click here of real permeability to frequency. A high real permeability of 525 at frequency up to 1.2 GHz was obtained for the Fe65Co35-O films deposited at the optimized condition above.”
“The use of surface treatments at industrial level is generalized as they allow obtaining a wide variety of properties such as soft in the touch, hydrophilic behavior, and biocompatibility. The use of low-pressure plasma techniques with organic gases or organic mixtures is an easy way to obtain surface coatings very small in depth through plasma-polymerization processes that can be assimilated to a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. In this work, we have carried out a plasma-polymerization process on a polypropylene (PP) film to obtain a hydrophilic coating.

Several investigators have studied the influence of HBV genotypes

Several investigators have studied the influence of HBV genotypes on clinical outcomes in chronic HBV patients. This review describes the current genotyping techniques, as well as their advantages and limitations. It also presents the clinical evidence that correlates HBV genotypes to clinical outcomes

including disease severity, HCC development, response to therapy, disease chronicity, transplantation outcomes, and occult infection. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious AZD6094 molecular weight Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To date, experiments in economics are restricted to situations in which individuals are not influenced by the physical presence of other people. In such contexts, interactions remain at an abstract level, agents guessing what another person is thinking or is about to decide based on money exchange. Physical presence and bodily signals are therefore this website left out of the picture. However, in real life, social

interactions (involving economic decisions or not) are not solely determined by a person’s inference about someone else’s state-of-mind. In this essay, we argue for embodied economics: an approach to neuroeconomics that takes into account how information provided by the entire body and its coordination dynamics influences the way we make economic decisions. Considering the role of embodiment in economics-movements, posture, sensitivity to mimicry and every kind of information the body conveys-makes sense. This is what we claim in this essay which, to some extent, constitutes a plea to consider bodily interactions between agents in social (neuro) economics.”
“Objectives: This study was designed to examine the change in mean platelet volume (MPV) over the course of infective endocarditis (IE) and also the association between MPV and complications including embolic events in IE.

Methods: Forty patients (26 male, mean age 46 +/- 15 years) who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of IE at the Department of Cardiology, Erciyes

University, from March 2005 to August 2008, JNK-IN-8 cost were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnosis of IE was made clinically and was confirmed with Duke’s criteria. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and MPV were measured before treatment and periodically during the follow-up period, until discharge.

Results: There were 27 cases of native valve endocarditis and 13 of prosthetic valve endocarditis. While 31 patients were treated medically, an operation was performed in nine patients because of unsuccessful medical therapy. On admission, mean MPV was 10.8 +/- 1.1 fl, ESR was 82 +/- 26 mm/h, and hs-CRP was 110 +/- 72 mg/l. Seven patients died: one intraoperatively, three patients postoperatively, and three patients during medical treatment.

Thus, its determination in plasma and other body fluids or in uri

Thus, its determination in plasma and other body fluids or in urine is important, too. Like other drugs, 5-fluorouracil is also determined in formulations during

quality https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD7762.html control or stability studies.”
“Purpose of review

Hypothermic preservation is a prerequisite for kidney exchange in transplantation. The severity of tissue damage caused by hypothermic preservation influences the level of ischemia/reperfusion injury and subsequent graft function. With the purpose of reviewing the implications of prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) in kidney transplantation, its pathophysiology, effects on early and late outcome of transplantation for different types of deceased organ donors, and preservation methods are discussed based on recent literature.

Recent findings

The main findings are that the consequences of a prolonged CIT are mainly identifiable in the early posttransplant period as delayed graft function, especially in expanded criteria donors,

and possibly in an increased acute rejection rate. The preferred method of hypothermic preservation in expanded criteria donors and donors after cardiac death appears to be machine preservation.


The effects of CIT on the long-term outcome of renal transplantation in the form of impaired graft function and graft survival are less evident.”
“Study Design. Correlation of locations of sacral insufficiency fractures is made to regions of stress depicted by finite element analysis derived from biomechanical models of patient activities.

Objective. Sacral insufficiency fractures occur at consistent locations. It was postulated that sacral anatomy Dorsomorphin in vivo and sites of stress within the sacrum with routine activities in the setting of osteoporosis are foundations for determining patterns for the majority of sacral insufficiency fractures.

Summary of Background Data. The predominant vertical components of sacral check details insufficiency fractures most frequently occur bilaterally through the alar regions of the sacrum, which are the thickest and most robust appearing portions of the sacrum instead of subjacent to the central sacrum, which bears the downward force of the


Methods. First, the exact locations of 108 cases of sacral insufficiency fractures were catalogued and compared to sacral anatomy. Second, different routine activities were simulated by pelvic models from CT scans of the pelvis and finite element analysis. Analyses were done to correlate sites of stress with activities within the sacrum and pelvis compared to patterns of sacral insufficiency fractures from 108 cases.

Results. The sites of stress depicted by the finite element analysis walking model strongly correlated with identical locations for most sacral and pelvic insufficiency fractures. Consistent patterns of sacral insufficiency fractures emerged from the 108 cases and a biomechanical classification system is introduced.