The review also discusses the importance of mechanisms pertaining

The review also discusses the importance of mechanisms pertaining to cellular apoptosis during testicular development, which is independent of exogenous stimuli. this website Since instances of germ cell carcinoma have increased over the past few decades, the current status of research on apoptotic pathways in teratocarcinoma cells is included. One other

important aspect that is covered in this review is microRNA-mediated control of germ cell apoptosis, a field of research that is going to see intense activity in near future. Since knockout models of various kinds have been used to study many aspects of germ cell development, a comprehensive summary of literature on knockout mice used in reproduction studies is also provided.”
“Ethnicity Blebbistatin solubility dmso is an important host variable, but its impact on disease progression and response to therapy in Hepatitis C infection is unclear. Here we compare the natural history and outcome of therapy in White and Asian (Indian subcontinent) Hepatitis C infected patients. A total of 2123 White and 120 Asian HCV infected patients were identified within the Trent HCV study. Response to therapy was assessed

in 224 White and 46 Asian patients with genotype 3 infection who received Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin. Asian patients were more likely to be older, female, infected with genotype 3 and to consume no alcohol. At time of first biopsy, fibrosis stage was significantly higher in Asian patients than

in Whites (3.0 +/- 2.3 vs 1.8 +/- 2.0, P < 0.001), as were necro-inflammation and steatosis scores. However, in those patients where duration of infection could be estimated, fibrosis progression was similar for both groups (0.25 +/- 0.31 vs 0.16 +/- 0.54 Ishak points/year, P = 0.068). 78.3% of Asian and 67.9% of White genotype learn more 3 patients had a sustained virological response following Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin. Cirrhosis and increased levels of GGT, but not ethnicity were associated with a reduction in the likelihood of a sustained virological response on multivariate analysis. Asian patients with Hepatitis C are more likely to be female, less likely to give a history of risk factors, present to medical services at an older age, and have more severe liver disease at diagnosis, but disease progression and response to treatment are similar to White patients.”
“Daclizumab is an interleukin-2 receptor antagonist which is used for induction therapy in heart transplant patients. It has few side effects and is associated with a low infection rate. Postoperative renal failure after heart transplantation is common and potentially fatal. The administration of calcineurin inhibitors in the postoperative period can aggravate the situation. We report the cases of six patients who underwent heart transplantation and developed acute renal failure in the immediate postoperative period.

During development, endochondral bone is formed from a template o

During development, endochondral bone is formed from a template of cartilage that transforms into bone; however, mature articular cartilage remains in the articulating joints, where its principal role is reducing friction and dispersing mechanical load. Articular cartilage is prone to damage from sports injuries or ageing, which regularly progresses

to more serious joint disorders, such as osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the thinning and eventual wearing of articular cartilage, and affects millions of people worldwide. Due to low chondrocyte motility and proliferative rates, and complicated by the absence of blood vessels, cartilage has a limited ability to self-repair. Current pharmaceutical and surgical interventions fail to generate repair tissue with buy Fedratinib the mechanical and cellular properties of native host cartilage. The long-term success of cartilage repair will therefore depend on regenerative methodologies resulting in the restoration of articular cartilage that closely duplicates the native tissue. For cell-based therapies, the optimal cell source must be readily accessible with easily isolated, abundant cells capable of collagen type II and sulfated proteoglycan production in appropriate selleck chemicals llc proportions. Although a cell source

with these therapeutic properties remains elusive, mesenchymal chondroprogenitors retain their expansion capacity with the promise of reproducing the structural or biomechanical properties of healthy articular cartilage. As current knowledge regarding chondroprogenitors is relatively limited, this review will focus on their origin and therapeutic application.”
“BACKGROUND: check details The survival benefit of heart transplantation in adult heart failure is greatest for the sickest patients and negligible for patients not requiring inotropic or mechanical support. We hypothesized a similar survival benefit of heart transplantation for childhood cardiomyopathies with heart failure.

METHODS: A merged data set of children registered in both the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry and the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study was used to assess differences in mortality before and after transplant in

patients with different levels of heart failure severity. Severity was scored 2 if’mechanical ventilatory or circulatory support was required, 1 if intravenous inotropes were required, or 0 if no support was required.

RESULTS: For 332 eligible children, 12-month mortality after listing was 9% for those with a severity score of 0 (n = 105), 16% with a score of 1 (n = 118), and 26% with a score of 2 (n = 109; p = 0.002) with a 3%, 8%, and 20% mortality with severity scores at listing of 0, 1, and 2, respectively, occurring before transplant. Patients listed with a score of 0 frequently deteriorated: 50% received an allograft or died before transplant with severity scores of 1 or 2. The risk of deterioration increased with previous surgery (relative risk, 3.84; p = 0.

Under drought, ABI1 transcription is up-regulated while ABI3 is u

Under drought, ABI1 transcription is up-regulated while ABI3 is usually down-regulated. Recently ABI3 has been hypothesized to be essential for successful drought recovery.”
“Single-phase CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) was synthesized by solid-state reaction. Electron backscatter diffraction,

scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were adopted to characterize the grain orientation, microstructure, and surface morphology of the CCTO samples with or without thermal etching. Bump strained nano-regions induced by the local compositional disorder at a nano-scale have been discovered, being the origin of GDC-0068 clinical trial the formation of subgrains in CCTO. The proposed mechanism for the formation of subgrains involves the formation of etched pits and subboundaries pertaining to the strained nano-regions rather than dislocation displacement. The dielectric response inside the grains of CCTO relevant to the strained nano-regions is also discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3610520]“
“The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

(PCV10) was introduced as a mandatory vaccine in Bulgaria in April 2010. We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance of 222 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from all age groups before the introduction of PCV10. PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 covered 43.7, 59.9, and 78.8% of all invasive pneumococcal strains, and 64.2, 79.1, and 89.6% of isolates involving children VS-4718 less than 5 years of age. Penicillin resistance was found in 30.1% of the isolates responsible learn more for meningitis and in 5.0% of isolates responsible for other invasive infections. Overall, erythromycin resistance was found in 19.4% of all invasive strains. The erm(B) was the most prevalent pneumococcal macrolide resistance genotype (63.2%) and dual mechanisms of both genes the erm(B) and mef(E) were detected in 15.8% of 19 erythromycin resistant isolates during the period 2006-2010. The prevalence and

spread of serotypes 19F, 6B, and 19A during the last period may have contributed to the high predominance of erm(B) genotype in comparison of mef genotype, which was predominant in our country among erythromycin-resistant isolates before 2005. Continuing surveillance is required after the recent introduction of PCV10 in order to observe future developments of any serotype changes in the Bulgarian population, as well as surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates.”
“Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinases (SnRKs) take their name from their fungal homologue, SNF1, a global regulator of carbon metabolism. The plant family has burgeoned to comprise 38 members which can be subdivided into three sub-families: SnRK1, SnRK2, and SnRK3. There is now good evidence that this has occurred to allow plants to link metabolic and stress signalling in a way that does not occur in other organisms.

Here, we investigated the biological role of the product of BROTH

Here, we investigated the biological role of the product of BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT), a member of this family, whose function remains unknown. Comparison of the critical residues that play a role in distinguishing FT- or TFL1-like activity revealed that BFT is more similar to FT. Similar to FT expression, BFT expression showed a diurnal oscillation pattern, peaking in the evening. In situ hybridization revealed BFT expression in the shoot apical meristem, young leaf and axillary inflorescence meristem. Transgenic plants over-expressing

BFT exhibited delayed flowering and severe floral defects (floral indeterminacy and compact inflorescences surrounded by serrate leaves), similar to 35S::TFL1 plants. LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) expression was significantly reduced in 35S::BFT plants. BFT over-expression failed to rescue the terminal Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor flower phenotype of tfl1 mutants; however, learn more it delayed both terminal flower formation in the primary inflorescence and axillary inflorescence development in the tfl1 mutant background. Consistent with this, the loss-of-function BFT alleles, bft-2 and an BFT RNAi line, accelerated termination of the primary inflorescence and formation

of axillary inflorescences in the tfl1 mutant background. Taken together, our results suggest that, despite similarities in the critical residues of BFT and FT, BFT possesses a TFL1-like activity SBC-115076 mouse and functions redundantly with TFL1 in inflorescence meristem development, and possibly contributes to the regulation of plant architecture.”
“Aims: Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, exerts a beneficial role regarding the development of coronary heart disease. In addition, several studies support the protective role of the Mediterranean diet as far as obesity is concerned. This review, examining results from prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies, as well as clinical trials, aims to clarify whether the beneficial effect

of the Mediterranean dietary pattern on coronary heart disease is due to the impact of this diet on weight loss and obesity status or an independent effect. Data Synthesis: 35 original-research studies that were published in English until 2009, selected through a computer-assisted literature search are discussed, from which 3 were prospective, 11 were cross-sectional studies, and 21 were clinical trials. Conclusion: Although not all studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean diet on body weight and obesity, the evidence suggests a possible beneficial role of this dietary pattern. Thus the Mediterranean diet protects against the development of coronary heart disease not only because of its beneficial role regarding cardiovascular risk factors, but also due to a possible effect on body weight and obesity. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Conclusion Radial tears and herniation are significant predictor

Conclusion. Radial tears and herniation are significant predictors of progressive nuclear degeneration, which was not seen in the absence of radial tears. End plate defects also frequently occur before nuclear degeneration but rarely in the absence of anular tears.”
“Semi and full interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were synthesized by

allowing free radical copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the matrix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). Accordingly, four AZD3965 cell line different semi IPN hydrogels were prepared with PVOH: copolymer mass ratio of 1 : 1, 1 : 0.75, 1 : 0.5, and 1 : 0.25. These hydrogels were designated as SEMIIPN1, SEMIIPN2, SEMIIPN3, and SEMIIPN4, respectively. In all of these SEMIIPN, after polymerization PVOH was crosslinked with 2 mass % glutaraldehyde to form the semi IPN structure. In a similar way, sequential full IPN were prepared from PVOH and copolymer of AA and HEMA (designated

as PAAHEMA) with same composition except in this case apart from crosslinking of PVOH by 2 mass % glutaraldehyde the PAAHEMA copolymer was further crosslinked with N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) to produce four full IPN hydrogels designated as FULLIPN1, FULLIPN2, FULLIPN3, and FULLIPN4. All of these semi and full IPN type hydrogels were characterized by carboxylic %, FTIR, UV, DTA-TGA, XRD, SEM, and mechanical properties. The network Fer-1 parameters, swelling and diffusion characteristics of these hydrogels were also studied. The performance of these semi and full IPNs were compared in terms of their relative abilities for removing varied

concentration of rhodamine selleck B (RB) and methyl Violet (MV) dyes from water. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The brittle culm (bc) mutants of Gramineae plants having brittle skeletal structures are valuable materials for studying secondary cell walls. In contrast to other recessive bc mutants, rice Bc6 is a semi-dominant bc mutant with easily breakable plant bodies. In this study, the Bc6 gene was cloned by positional cloning. Bc6 encodes a cellulose synthase catalytic subunit, OsCesA9, and has a missense mutation in its highly conserved region. In culms of the Bc6 mutant, the proportion of cellulose was reduced by 38%, while that of hemicellulose was increased by 34%. Introduction of the semi-dominant Bc6 mutant gene into wild-type rice significantly reduced the percentage of cellulose, causing brittle phenotypes. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Bc6 mutation reduced the cell wall thickness of sclerenchymal cells in culms. In rice expressing a reporter construct, BC6 promoter activity was detected in the culms, nodes, and flowers, and was localized primarily in xylem tissues.

Subjects who have an anterior cervical fusion with trabecular met

Subjects who have an anterior cervical fusion with trabecular metal show significant quantitative as well as qualitative differences in cervical kinematics during active axial rotation and lateral bending compared to control subjects.”
“BACKGROUND: Phenyl-urea herbicides are found in surface waters and wastewaters as a consequence of their extensive use in agriculture. Selleck KPT-8602 Due to their pollutant power, the removal of phenyl-ureas is a priority objective in water treatment technologies.

RESULTS: Four selected phenyl-ureas herbicides (linuron, diuron, chlortoluron

and isoproturon), dissolved in two water matrices (a groundwater and and a reservoir water), were subjected to sequential combinations of chemical treatments and membrane filtration processes. Two specific sequences were conducted: first, a chemical oxidation stage (where UV radiation, ozone and ozone plus hydrogen peroxide were used) followed by a nanofiltration process; and second, a membrane filtration stage (using UF and NF membranes) followed by an ozonation stage. Values for the herbicide removals in the oxidation stages and for the rejection coefficients

in the filtration stages are provided, and the partial contribution of the different stages is established for each combined treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: High removals (over 80%) were reached for phenyl-ureas elimination by most of the combined processes tested. In the combined chemical oxidation/nanofiltration processes, the most effective was an ozonation pretreatment IPI 145 ([O(3)](0) = 1.5 mg L(-1))) followed by a NF step. In the opposite sequence filtration/chemical oxidation, the most effective was a NF pretreatment followed by the ozonation ([O(3)](0) = 2 mg L(-1)). (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Familial Fosbretabulin order hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that markedly elevates plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and causes premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 20 million people with FH worldwide, but the majority remains undetected, and current treatment is often suboptimal. To address this major gap in coronary prevention we present, from an

international perspective, consensus-based guidance on the care of FH. The guidance was generated from seminars and workshops held at an international symposium. The recommendations focus on the detection, diagnosis, assessment, and management of FH in adults and children and set guidelines for clinical purposes. They also refer to best practice for cascade screening and risk notifying and testing families for FH, including use of genetic testing. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratification, management of noncholesterol risk factors, and the safe and effective use of low-density lipoprotein-lowering therapies. Recommendations are given on lipoprotein apheresis. The use of emerging therapies for FH is also foreshadowed.

Information collected included baseline

Information collected included baseline demographics, medical history, and antithrombotic medications. Outcome measures were stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and major systemic bleeding (i.e., requiring transfusion) up to 4 weeks after the procedure among patients who had medications continued versus temporarily discontinued. Results: One hundred seventy-seven patients met inclusion

criteria. Antithrombotic medication was temporarily discontinued in 42 patients and continued in 135 patients. Comparing patients who had medications held to those who had medications continued, stroke occurred in 1 (2.4%) versus 0 (0%; P = .237) patients; myocardial infarction in no patients in either group; venous thromboembolism in 0 (0%) versus 1 (0.7%; P > .99) patients; and major system bleeding in 2 (4.8%)

versus 4 (3.0%; P = .628) patients. Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and major bleeding between patients who had medications continued around the time of colonoscopy versus those who had temporary discontinuation. A prospective, Dorsomorphin order randomized controlled study is warranted to further elucidate this issue.”
“Lactobacillus pentosus S-PT84, which was isolated from Kyoto pickles, enhances splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity, increases IgA production from Peyer’s patch cells and has high T-helper 1 (Thl) cytokine and type 1-interferon-inducing activity. However, all of these effects were obtained by using heat-killed S-PT84. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of live and heat-killed S-PT84 in BALB/c mice. Unexpectedly, selleck chemical live S-PT84 indicated weak activity on Th1 cytokine (interleukin-12 or interferon-gamma) production from splenocytes

compared to heat-killed S-PT84 in vitro. Similar tendencies were also shown in S-PT84 having different cell wall thickness. Next, we compared the immunomodulatory effect after oral ingestion of each S-PT84. The results indicated splenic NK activity was equally enhanced by live or heat-killed S-PT84 ingestion, though heat-killed S-PT84 indicated slightly higher activity in interferon-gamma production and inclination toward Thl immunity. These results suggested that both live and heat-killed S-PT84 have an equal immunomodulatory effect in BALB/c mice. It is thought that the use of heat-killed S-PT84 is advantageous from the viewpoint of ease of handling compared to live S-PT84.”
“Oral Diseases (2012) 18, 625632 Non-exposed bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a newly reported complication arising from bisphosphonate therapy that presents with atypical symptoms and no apparent mucosal fenestration or exposure of necrotic bone.

7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switz

7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland.”
“The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the “”automatism defense”" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the

legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or Selleckchem ZVADFMK absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles

that have find more hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamanopyranosyl-(1″”‘-6 ”)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) (Nicotiflorin or kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside), isolated from the aerial parts of Osyris wightiana Wall. ex Wight, has exhibited a potent antiglycation activity in vitro. A short and efficient route to kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (1) is also described in this paper. To study the Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR), few other derivatives of kaempferol were also evaluated for their antiglycation activity. Moreover the cytotoxicity analysis was also performed for these compounds prepared and SAR studies

showed that sugar derivatives of kaempferol possess a promising antiglycation activity.”
“Background: Various methods have been studied as replacement of human landing catches (HLC) for mosquito sampling in entomological studies on malaria transmission. Conflicting results have been obtained in comparing relative efficiency of alternative methods, according to the area, the species present and their density. The aim of this study was to compare the number and characteristics of mosquitoes sampled in two areas of Senegal by Vorinostat cost three different methods: HLC, light traps adjacent to an occupied bed net (LT/N), pyrethrum spray catches (PSC).

Methods: Collections were performed in two villages: Dielmo (Soudan savanna) and Bandafassi (Soudan Guinean savanna), two or three nights per month for a 4-5 months period during the maximal transmission season in 2001-2002. Species were identified and Plasmodium infection determined by ELISA. The specific composition, circumsporozoite protein rate and entomological inoculation rate were calculated.

Results: The diversity of mosquito species captured was maximal with LT/N, minimal with PSC. The mean number of anopheles captures each night was significantly different according to the method used and the species. PSC displayed a significantly lower anopheles density.

The degree of stability was not affected by implant loading Only

The degree of stability was not affected by implant loading. Only mild skin reactions were observed incidentally. Copanlisib datasheet This study supports the use of early loading at 3 weeks as current practice in healthy adults with good bone quality; thus, these adults can benefit from the rehabilitation of their hearing at an earlier stage.”
“Previous studies have shown highly effective lowering of blood pressure with thiazide diuretics in combination with

angiotensin receptor blockers. However, thiazide diuretics may cause the development of diabetes and abnormal lipid metabolism. Little is known as to whether dysmetabolic potential of thiazide diuretics could be neutralized when adding angiotensin receptor blockers. This study consisted of 26 patients with essential hypertension. Patients were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with either candesartan, 12 mg monotherapy (n = 13, group A), or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), 6.25 mg in combination with candesartan, 8 mg (n = 13, group B). Before and after treatment, we assessed glucose and lipid profiles including this website adiponectin, resistin, and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. At baseline, there were no differences in age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), as well as plasma levels of hemoglobin A1c, insulin, low-density

lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin, resistin, and active GLP-1 between the two groups. There were significant reductions in SBP (from 152 +/- 10 mmHg at baseline to 134 +/- 12 mmHg after treatment) and DBP (from MK-1775 Cell Cycle inhibitor 84 +/- 5 mmHg at baseline to 71 +/- 8 mmHg after treatment) in group A. There were also significant reductions in SBP (from 148 +/- 10 at baseline to 128 +/- 7 mmHg after treatment) and DBP (from 90 +/- 9 at baseline to 74 +/- 12 mmHg after treatment) in group B. There were no differences in reduction of SBP or DBP after 24 weeks of treatment between the two groups. There were no changes of the glucose and lipid profiles, including adiponectin, resistin, insulin, and active GLP-1

levels after 24 weeks of treatment in both groups. A low dose of HCTZ in combination with candesartan reduces blood pressure effectively without adverse effects on the glucose and lipid profiles. Therefore, the combination of thiazide diuretics and angiotensin receptor blockers could assist patients in achieving long-term control of blood pressure with good tolerability.”
“Background The growing awareness of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality necessitates investigations into the underlying mechanisms. Small animals have been the dominant transfusion model but have associated limitations. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive large animal (ovine) model of transfusion encompassing: blood collection, processing and storage, compatibility testing right through to post-transfusion outcomes.

It is a rare autosomal recessive condition, characterized by dry,

It is a rare autosomal recessive condition, characterized by dry, severely thickened skin with large plates of hyperkeratotic scale, separated by deep fissures. Infants are very susceptible to metabolic abnormalities and infections. They usually do not survive for very long, but several long term survivals have been noted. The vast majority of affected individuals Quizartinib are homozygous for mutations in the ABCA12 gene, which cause a deficiency of the epidermal lipid transporter, resulting in hyperkeratosis and abnormal barrier function. We report a case of a newborn with harlequin ichthyosis,

born to unrelated parents, who had a favorable evolution with topical treatment and intensive care.”
“Purpose: To identify the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf, employ response surface methodology to optimize its ultrasonic-assisted extraction,

and determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extract.

Methods: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was obtained by traditional solvent extraction and recrystallization methods, and identified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). By using response surface methodology, the effects of extraction time, ethanol concentration and ultrasonic frequency on flavonoid OICR-9429 yield were selleck chemicals investigated and optimal conditions determined. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and

reducing power of the obtained extract was also examined.

Results: The main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf was identified as camellianin A. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time, 30.25 min; ethanol concentration, 63.84 %; and ultrasonic frequency, 45 KHz. The mean experimental flavonoid yield under optimum conditions was 84.52 +/- 1.65 %, which agreed with the predicted value of 83.02 %. The obtained flavonoid extract was an effective scavenger of DPPH radicals with IC50 of 0.02 mg/mL. A linear correlation between concentration of the flavonoid extract and reducing power was observed with a coefficient of r(2) = 0.9867.

Conclusion: By using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, the main flavonoid in Adinandra nitida leaf can be obtained at a high yield. The flavonoid displays a strong DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power, which makes it potentially useful in the food and pharmaceuticals industries.”
“Background: Large animal models of implantable hearing devices are needed to assess innovative technologies before using them in humans. The rhesus macaque has cognitive abilities close to humans and has been used in the past but with noncommercial implants or no detailed radiologic descriptions of the surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cochlear implantation in this animal model.