However, neither depletion of NK cells or neutrophils, along with DC, mitigated the exacerbated hepatotoxicity associated with DC depletion (Fig. 6), suggesting that the protective effects of DC is not simply secondary to expansion of other leukocyte populations. Similarly, because DC depletion results in elevated serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 after APAP administration, we tested whether blockade of these cytokines in vivo would prevent the exacerbated liver injury. However, none of these cytokine blockades protected APAP-DC animals (Supporting Fig. 10). Similarly, IFN-α blockade33 failed to protect APAP-DC animals (Supporting Fig.
10) There is evidence to suggest that APAP-induced liver toxicity is the result of a “two-hit” PF 2341066 mechanism, the first hit being depletion of glutathione, which in turn allows the toxic metabolite NAPQ1 to exert harmful effects Opaganib by forming covalent
bonds with cellular proteins. The second hit is the downstream activation of cells of the innate immune system. Because DC have a central function in liver immunity and inflammation, we postulated a critical role for DC in APAP-mediated toxicity. Previously, we showed that DC expand 5-fold and undergo a transformation in function from a tolerogenic to an immunogenic role in chronic liver fibrosis.25 We reported that DC contribute to the proinflammatory cascade in liver fibrosis by way of production of TNF-α and subsequent T-cell activation as well as induction of innate immune responses.25 Similar to liver fibrosis, in APAP toxicity DCs are highly proinflammatory, producing elevated levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 (Fig. 3D,E). However, in contrast to chronic liver disease, in acute liver injury as a result of APAP overdose, DC populations remained stable in number. Furthermore, whereas chronic liver injury resulted in the transformation
of DC from weak purveyors of tolerance MCE公司 to potent immunogenicity, in the current context DC did not gain enhanced capacity to stimulate CD4+ or CD8+ T cells (Fig. 3F) or NK cells (Supporting Fig. 9B,C). The trigger in the hepatic microenvironment that thrusts DC in certain inflammatory contexts towards immunogenicity is uncertain but may be the key to understanding hepatic tolerance. Furthermore, whereas DCs appear to contribute to the pathologic environment in chronic liver disease, in the current context DCs are protective. This is evidenced by reduced liver enzymes and histologic measurement of necrosis in APAP-treated mice cotreated with Flt3L, which expands DC populations 10-fold. Furthermore, mice depleted of DC had significantly more extensive centro-lobular necrosis (Fig. 1A,B) and increased mortality (Fig. 2) when compared to mock-depleted mice. In addition, APAP-DC mice produced markedly higher serum liver enzyme levels (Fig. 1C) and inflammatory mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α (Fig. 1E,F) compared with APAP challenge in the absence of DC depletion.