Higher GNF was related to greater functional well-being (p <

Higher GNF was related to greater functional well-being (p < .01) irrespective of estimated premorbid IQ\n\nConclusion: The finding that

higher premorbid cognitive ability buffers the effect of neuropsychological impairment on emotional well-being after brain tumour advances understanding of the role of cognitive reserve in adjustment to neurological disorders. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming increasingly popular and official routines or self-programmed functions have been included in many statistical software. In this article, we review the statistical methods and the related software for multivariate meta-analysis.

Emphasis is placed on Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo, and codes in WinBUGS are provided. The various model-fitting options are illustrated AICAR in two examples and specific guidance is provided on how to run a multivariate meta-analysis using various software packages.”
“WO3-mediated photocatalytic oxidation is achievable CYT387 clinical trial in the presence of electron acceptors as an alternative to O-2 or co-catalysts enabling O-2 reduction pathway. This study suggests the combination with Fenton-like reagent (Fe(III)/H2O2) as a strategy to improve the photocatalytic activity of WO3. Under neutral pH condition where Fe(III) is present as iron oxide precipitate, photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) proceeded 3-fold faster in the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system relative to the WO3/H2O2 system, while no noticeable oxidation occurred in the systems of Fe(III)/H2O2, WO3, and WO3/Fe(III).

Such efficacy increase at circumneutral pH was observed in photocatalytic oxidation of diverse organics including phenol, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, and carbamazepine. Compatible with the pH dependence of photocatalytic activity of the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system, hydroxylation of benzoic acid and coumarin as indirect indication for OH radical production was drastically retarded with increasing pH. The pH effect indicates that OH radical as primary oxidant may be responsible for the kinetic enhancement in the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system. In that platinum deposits or Nafion layers as physical barriers possibly inhibit surface Fe(III) precipitation, Selleck PLX3397 use of platinized or Nafion-coated WO3 caused the negligible photocatalytic improvement in the ternary system. Effective oxidative degradation in the presence of the UV cut-off filter corroborated visible light activation of the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The scattered tree layer that defines savannas is important for structuring the understory community and determining patterns of overstory recruitment. However, encroachment by woody plants has altered overstory tree densities and regeneration dynamics.

All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at

All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health

Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention), or continue simply to receive usual care (control). We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age.\n\nResults: We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7%) with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up find more interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant buy JIB-04 effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR =

2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042) between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026). We also observed a significant improvement of attitudes toward alcohol consumption from baseline to follow-up (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.13 -11.24, p = 0.029).\n\nConclusions: This pilot study is the first randomized evaluation of text4baby. It is a promising program in that exposure to the text messages was associated with changes in specific beliefs targeted by the messages.”
“Spectroscopic and crystallographic studies reveal that Merocyanine 540 (MC 540), a well-known therapeutically important anionic cyanine dye, interacts with hen egg white lysozyme in

ground state. The formation of the complex is validated by two isosbestic points in absorption spectra of lysozyme with varied concentration of MC 540 and appearance of an isodichroic point in induced CD spectra of MC 540 with lysozyme. The blue shift of fluorescence maximum of lysozyme in presence of MC 540 shows hydrophobic effect on Trp due to complex formation probably Epoxomicin in vitro through cooperative binding. Above 1:3 M stoichiometric ratio (lysozyme:MC 540) an additional fluorescence hump arises because of structural changes in protein, where MC 540 acts as self-denaturant, inducing non-linearity in Stern-Volmer plot. The van’t Hoff isotherms with negative changes in enthalpy at lower concentration and positive changes in entropy for entire concentration range of MC 540 depict the binding forces as hydrogen bonding/van der Waal’s and ionic/hydrophobic respectively. Finally X-ray crystallographic structure of the complex shows that MC 540 adopts two conformations, cis and trans, while it binds to lysozyme.

In contrast, a diverse assemblage that thrives

in relativ

In contrast, a diverse assemblage that thrives

in relatively undisturbed conditions was present in samples with high IBI scores. Comparison of the new macroinvertebrate IBI with an existing fish IBI suggested that the indices respond to different environmental stressors and illustrated the limitations of using only one taxonomic group for bioassessment. We discuss new macroinvertebrate methods, an IBI development GSK923295 in vitro process, and the refinement of metrics that may be useful in tailoring assessment tools for large rivers or wadeable streams in other regions. We also present applications of the IBI, including its potential use in comprehensive large river monitoring programs and for evaluating management efforts.”
“Objective: To determine the pattern and predictors of growth velocity in early infancy in a resource-poor setting.\n\nMethods: Weight velocity between birth and first postnatal visit was determined in a cohort of preterm and full-term infants in Lagos, Nigeria using three mathematical methods reported in the literature. Maternal and infant factors predictive of weight velocity were identified by multiple linear regression analysis.\n\nResults: Overall, 658 infants were enrolled with mean gestational age of 37.7 +/- 2.0 weeks, birthweight of 3.2 +/-

0.6 kg and median age of 45 (interquartile range: Vorinostat order 42-48) days at follow-up. Offspring of older and HIV-positive mothers had significantly lower mean weight velocities while male infants and those with low birthweight and fetal growth restriction had significantly higher mean weight velocity than their peers. These patterns were consistent across the three growth models. Maternal age (p = 0.004), antenatal care (p = 0.007), HIV-status (p = 0.008) and gender Alisertib mw (p<0.001)

were predictive of weight velocity. Higher weight velocity was strongly associated with lower birthweight (p<0.001) indicative of “catch-up” growth as well as with higher gestational age (p<0.001).\n\nConclusions: While maternal status is predictive of early growth faltering, preterm infants warrant timely intervention to forestall/minimise the potential health and developmental consequences associated with their sub-optimal growth trajectory. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A solid acid boron phosphate (BP) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic effects of BP on pyrolysis and flame retardancy of epoxy resins (EP) were studied by various methods. Transmission electron microscopy images suggested that BP was uniformly dispersed into the EP matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry illustrated that loading of BP could slightly reduce the glass transition temperature of EP.

These compounds induced no discernible DNA fragmentation, and act

These compounds induced no discernible DNA fragmentation, and activated caspases much more weakly in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells. Both [16] and [20] failed to induce the production of acidic organelles, a marker of autophagy, in contrast to the nutritional starvation. These data demonstrated that 2-aminotropones showed relatively higher tumor-specificity than benzo[b]cyclohept[e] [1,4]oxazine, and that 2-aminotropones induced little or no apoptotic cell death in oral

squamous cell carcinoma, in contrast to Ro-3306 research buy HL-60 cells.”
“Background: Despite scientific advances in typing of C. difficile strains very little is known about how hospital staff see more use typing results during periods of increased incidence (PIIs). This qualitative study, undertaken alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT), explored this issue. The trial compared ribotyping versus more rapid genotyping (MLVA or multilocus variable repeat analysis) and found no significant difference in post 48 hour cases (C difficile transmissions).\n\nMethods: In-depth qualitative interviews with senior staff in 11/16 hospital trusts in the trial (5 MLVA and 6 Ribotyping). Semi-structured

interviews were conducted at end of the trial period. Transcripts were content analysed using framework analysis supported by NVivo-8 software. Common sub-themes were extracted by two researchers independently. These were compared and organised into over-arching

categories or ‘super-ordinate themes’.\n\nResults: The trial recorded that 45% of typing tests had some impact on infection control (IC) activities. Interviews indicated that tests had little impact on initial IC decisions. These were click here driven by hospital protocols and automatically triggered when a PII was identified. To influence decision-making, a laboratory turnaround time < 3 days (ideally 24 hours) was suggested; MLVA turnaround time was 5.3 days. Typing results were predominantly used to modify initiated IC activities such as ward cleaning, audits of practice or staff training; major decisions (e. g. ward closure) were unaffected. Organisational factors could limit utilisation of MLVA results. Results were twice as likely to be reported as ‘aiding management’ (indirect benefit) than impacting on IC activities (direct effect). Some interviewees considered test results provided reassurance about earlier IC decisions; others identified secondary benefits on organisational culture. An underlying benefit of improved discrimination provided by MLVA typing was the ability to explore epidemiology associated with CDI cases in a hospital more thoroughly.\n\nConclusions: Ribotyping and MLVA are both valued by users. MLVA had little additional direct impact on initial infection control decisions. This would require reduced turnaround time.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi also restores the potassium and calc

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi also restores the potassium and calcium contents and maintain their

ratio that was hampered with increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the present study. In conclusion, application of AMF could alleviate the negative effect of sodium chloride and can be used as a suitable approach for the salt affected soils.”
“Local signals from tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments, including matrix adhesive ligand, mechanical elasticity and micro-scale geometry, are known to instruct a variety of stem cell differentiation processes. Likewise, these signals converge to provide multifaceted, mechanochemical cues for highly-specific tissue Morphogenesis or regeneration. Despite accumulated knowledge about the individual and combined roles of various ACY-738 mechanochemical ECM signals in stem cell activities on 2-dimensional matrices, the understandings of morphogenetic or regenerative 3-dimenstional tissue microenvironrnents remain very limited. To that end, we established high-throughput platforms based on soft, fibrous matrices with various combinatorial ECM proteins meanwhile highly-tunable in elasticity and 3-dimensional geometry.

To demonstrate the utility of our platform, we evaluated 64 unique combinations of 6 ECM proteins (collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin, and elastin) on the adhesion, spreading and fate commitment of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) under two substrate stiffnesS (4.6 kPa, 20 kPa). Using this technique, we identified several neotissue microenvironments buy MCC950 supporting

learn more MSC adhesion, spreading and differentiation toward early vascular lineages. Manipulation of the matrix properties, such as elasticity and geometry, in concert with ECM proteins will permit the investigation of multiple and distinct MSC environments. This paper demonstrates the practical application of high through-put technology to facilitate the screening of a variety of engineered microenvironments with the aim to instruct stem cell differentiation. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in carcinogenesis, resistance to treatment and may lead to cancer recurrence and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism of CSC involved in these events needs to be further elucidated. In this study, CD133(+) colon cancer cells were cultured, which showed CSC properties both in vitro and in vivo from metastatic tissue. Upstream molecules in Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were preferentially expressed in these CD133(+) cells, as revealed by a global gene chip. The kinase activities of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were also significantly upregulated in CD133(+) cells. In addition, the clonogenic growth of CD133(+) cell was reduced greatly by inhibiting the activity of Akt and Erk1/2.

Taken together, this study suggests that octopamine and 5-HT can

Taken together, this study suggests that octopamine and 5-HT can mediate hemocytic phagocytosis and nodule formation, through a downstream signal pathway relayed by eicosanoids in S. exigua. (C) 2009 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc.”
“Structural properties of the CH3CN-SO2 complex were studied in the gas phase via density functional theory, as well as in argon matrices, nitrogen matrices, and solid-state thin films via low-temperature infrared spectroscopy. Gas-phase structures for two nearly isoenergetic conformations were obtained from B3PW91/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations, and these results indicate that the complex is quite weak in the gas phase, with a long N-S distance of 3.02 angstrom. Several vibrational LY2090314 inhibitor bands of the complex were observed in nitrogen and argon matrices. For the principle isotopomer, the SO2 asymmetric stretch was observed at 1345 cm(-1) in solid nitrogen and 1342 cm(-1) in argon. The SO2 symmetric Selleck IPI 145 stretch was observed at 1156 cm(-1) in nitrogen, and 1148 cm(-1) in argon. Also, the SO2 bend was observed at 527 cm(-1) in nitrogen,

and 520 cm(-1) (tentative assignment) in sold argon. In “matrix-free” spectra of solid CH3CN/SO2 thin films, the SO2 asymmetric stretch is the only SO2-localized mode appreciably shifted relative to the corresponding matrix frequencies, by about 20 cm(-1) to the red, but the band is essentially coincident that observed in a low temperature, bulk sample of pure SO2. Calculated frequencies (B3PW91/aug-cc-pVTZ) for the gas-phase CH3CN-SO2 complex show some larger discrepancies, but not to the degree that would imply any significant medium-induced structural changes. The N-S distance potential was also mapped in the gas phase via several density functional methods. and also for dielectric media (epsilon = 1.5-80) via PCM/B3LYP/6-311+G(2fd,p) calculations. The computational results are quite consistent with the structural implications of the experiments, and collectively, these data indicate that condensed-phase

media induce at most only minimal changes in the selleck inhibitor structural properties of CH3CN-SO2. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Acute confusional migraine (ACM) is considered a rare migraine variant primarily seen in children and adolescents.\n\nPatients and Methods: We present a series of eight adults and two adolescents suffering from migraine attacks associated with transient confusional states.\n\nResults: Eight patients reported two or more such attacks. One of them reported mild head trauma in the past. One patient reported mild head trauma as a possible trigger. Further investigations were unremarkable in all patients and did not suggest underlying structural abnormalities, epilepsy or cerebrovascular disease. In none of these patients did we find another cause to explain the observed phenomenon.

Its liver-specific expression in hepatocytes is strongly controll

Its liver-specific expression in hepatocytes is strongly controlled by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF4 alpha). HNF4 alpha expression and transcriptional activity have been demonstrated to be augmented by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in human hepatocytes and rodent livers. Methods:

It was examined whether GR activation indirectly induces OCT1 gene expression via HNF4 alpha up-regulation in primary human hepatocytes. We also examined which selleckchem other transcription factors are involved in OCT1 gene expression and whether they are regulated by dexamethasone using qRT-PCR and gene reporter assays. Results: We found that dexamethasone significantly up-regulates OCT1 mRNA and protein in normal primary human hepatocytes, but not in hepatocyte-derived tumor cell lines HepG2 and MZ-Hep1. Consistently, we observed that HNF4 alpha is induced by dexamethasone in primary human hepatocytes, but not in hepatocyte tumor-derived cell lines. Viral transduction of MZ-Hep1 cells with the expression constructs for HNF4 alpha, CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins beta (C/EBP beta) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator l alpha (PGC1 alpha) demonstrated significant roles of the transcription factors in OCT1 gene regulation. We found that expression of OCT1 mRNA in human livers significantly correlates

with C/EBP beta and HNF4 alpha mRNAs expression and that C/EBP beta co-transfection stimulates

OCT1 gene reporter construct in HepG2 cells. Selleckchem Autophagy inhibitor Nevertheless, neither C/EBP beta nor PGC1 alpha were up-regulated in human SBI-0206965 order hepatocytes by dexamethasone. Conclusion: We can conclude that GR-induced expression of HNF4 alpha may contribute to indirect OCT1 gene up-regulation by dexamethasone in primary human hepatocytes, but not in hepatocyte-derived tumor cell lines.”
“Background: public and patient involvement (PPI) in clinical research is increasingly advocated by funding and regulatory bodies. However, little is known about the views of either academics or members of the public about perceptions of the practical realities of PPI, particularly in relation to ageing research. Objective: to survey current levels of PPI in biomedical and clinical research relating to ageing at one institution. To compare and contrast the views of academics and the public about PPI relating to research about ageing. Design: electronic survey of senior academics, postgraduate students and members of a local user group for older people. Setting and participants: thirty-three academics (18 principal investigators and 15 PhD students) at a biomedical research institution. Fifty-four members of a local user group for older people. Results: thirty per cent (10/33) of projects described some PPI activity. Older adults were more positive about active involvement in research about ageing than academics.


test group consisted of 100 patients who wore swim go


test group consisted of 100 patients who wore swim goggles. The randomly selected control group consisted of 25 patients who wore goggles with the central lens cut out.\n\nResults: Ninety-nine percent of the patients in the test group reported a decrease in their symptoms after the goggles had been worn for 20 minutes. After the goggles had been removed for 15 minutes, the symptoms returned in 88% of the test patients. In the control group, only 24% experienced an improvement in symptoms during GSK690693 ic50 goggle wear; 76% experienced no improvement.\n\nConclusions: Increasing the periocular humidity has a significant positive impact on ocular comfort in patients with dry eye. This effect is transient. However, the significance AP26113 Angiogenesis inhibitor of the improvement is such that the use of goggles should be revisited to help patients suffering from chronic discomfort and other dry eye sequelae. Furthermore, the response of an individual

patient to short-term goggle wear may help streamline treatment options for both physicians and patients.”
“Background: Family planning has been defined in the framework of mothers and children plan as one of Primary Healthcare (PHC) details. Besides quantity, the quality of services, particularly in terms of ethics, such as observing individuals’ privacy, is of great importance in offering family planning services.\n\nObjective: A preliminary study to gather information about the degree of medical ethics offered during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers.\n\nMaterials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for study. In the first question regarding informed consent, 47 clients who were advised about various contraception methods were asked whether advantages and disadvantages of the contraceptive methods have been discussed by the service provider. Then a certain rank was measured for either client or method in 2007. Finally, average value of advantage and disadvantage for each method was measured. In questions about autonomy, justice and beneficence, yes/no

answers have been expected and measured accordingly.\n\nResults: Health care providers have stressed more on the advantages of pills and disadvantages of tubectomy and have paid JNK-IN-8 datasheet less attention to advantages of injection ampoules and disadvantages of pills in first time clients. While they have stressed more on the advantages and disadvantages of tubectomy and less attention to advantages of condom and disadvantages of vasectomy in second. time clients. Clients divulged their 100% satisfaction in terms of observing turns and free charges services. Observance degree of autonomy was 64.7% and 77.3% for first time and second- time clients respectively.\n\nConclusion: Applying the consultant’s personal viewpoint for selecting a method will breach an informed consent for first and second time clients. System has good consideration to justice and no malfeasance.

Studies on the reaction mechanism

Studies on the reaction mechanism Quisinostat clinical trial revealed that PpoA uses two different heme domains to catalyze two subsequent reactions. Initially, the fatty acid substrate is dioxygenated at C8, yielding an 8-hydroperoxy fatty acid at the N-terminal domain. This reaction is catalyzed by a peroxidase/dioxygenase-type domain that exhibits many similarities to prostaglandin H2 synthases and involves a stereospecific homolytic hydrogen abstraction from C8 of the substrate. The C terminus harbors a heme thiolate P450 domain in which rearrangement of the 8-hydroperoxide

to the final product, a 5,8-dihydroxy fatty acid, takes place. To obtain further information about the intrinsic kinetics and reaction mechanism of PpoA, we synthesized C5-dideutero- and C8-dideutero- oleic acid by a novel protocol that offers a straightforward synthesis without employing the toxic additive hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) during C-C coupling reactions or mercury salts upon thioketal deprotection. These deuterated fatty acids were then employed for kinetic analysis under multiple-turnover conditions. The results indicate that the hydrogen abstraction at C8 is the rate-determining step

of the overall reaction because we observed a KIE (V(H)/V(D)) of similar to 33 at substrate saturation that suggests extensive nuclear tunneling contributions for hydrogen transfer. Deuteration of the substrate at C5, however, had little effect on V(H)/V(D) but resulted in a different product pattern presumably Tipifarnib due to an altered lifetime and partitioning of a reaction intermediate.”
“The ability of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeders to deliver germplasm that combine elite malt quality characteristics, disease resistances, and important agronomic traits has been greatly enhanced by the use of molecular marker technologies. These technologies facilitate the rapid transfer of desirable traits from diverse, click here elite, germplasm

into locally adapted varieties. This present study sought to obtain an additive genetic effect by combining favourable alleles associated with the malting quality of two elite donor parents (Harrington and Morex) such that the resultant progeny would possess quality superior to either parent. Analysis of genetic diversity, based on whole-genome profiling with 700 DArT markers, showed clear separation of the BC(6)F(1)-derived doubled haploid lines from existing malting barley germplasm, indicating they represent a distinctly different source population for genetic improvement. Micro-malting quality results of the BC-derived lines showed substantial quality improvements, compared with the recurrent parent. Malt extract levels were increased by 1.5-2.0%, while diastase levels increased from approximately 320 WKE to 400-460 WKE. Similarly, alpha-amylase levels were increased from 160 units to between 218 and 251 units, and wort viscosities lowered from 1.90 cps to 1.72-1.82 cps.

Global gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays

Global gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays was conducted to detect altered genes in DMBA- or DMBA plus I3C-treated mammary glands. Altered genes were identified by fold changes of 1.2 and by t-test (P<0.05) from the log ratios of the hybridization intensity of samples between

control (Group 1) and DMBA (Group 2), and from those of samples between Ill (Group 2) and DMBA plus I3C (Group 3). From these genes, we chose altered genes that were up- or down-regulated by DMBA treatment and recovered to the control level by I3C treatment. For early stage of carcinogenesis, I3C treatment induced the recovery to normal levels of several genes including cell cycle pathway (cyclin B2, cell division cycle 2 homolog A), MAP signaling pathway (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, platelet derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide), and selleck screening library insulin signaling (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 3B and flotillin 2), which were up-regulated by DMBA treatment. In addition, I3C treatment induced the recovery to normal levels of several genes including those of MAPK signaling (transforming growth factor, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html beta receptor 1 and protein phosphatase

3, catalytic subunit, beta isoform), which were down-regulated by DMBA treatment. These results suggest that the targeting of these genes presents a possible approach for chemoprevention in DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.”

We wanted to evaluate the image quality, diagnostic accuracy and radiation exposure of 64-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography according to the heart rate in symptomatic patients during daily clinical practice.\n\nMaterials and Methods: We performed a retrospective search for the DSCT coronary angiography reports of 729 consecutive symptomatic patients. For the 131 patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography, the image MX69 cell line quality, the diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV] and negative predictive value [NPV] for detecting significant stenosis >= 50% diameter) and the radiation exposure were evaluated. These values were compared between the groups with differing heart rates (HR): mean HR < 65 or >= 65 and HR variability (HRV) < 15 or >= 15.\n\nResults: Among the 729 patients, the CT reports showed no stenosis or insignificant coronary artery stenosis in 72%, significant stenosis in 26% and non-diagnostic in 2%. For the 131 patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography, 95% of the patients and 97% of the segments were evaluable, and the overall per-patient/per-segment sensitivity, the per-patient/per-segment specificity, the per-patient/per-segment PPV and the per-patient/per-segment NPV were 100%/90%, 71%/98%, 95%/88% and 100%/97%, respectively. The image quality was better in the HR < 65 group than in the HR >= 65 group (p = 0.