This review examines the available evidence for the use of statin

This review examines the available evidence for the use of statins, omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, and niacin in the management of hypertriglyceridemic patients. Results from CHD outcomes trials support statins as the first-line lipid-altering drug therapy to reduce CHD in hypercholesterolemic patients, and subgroup analyses suggest statins are efficacious in hypertriglyceridemic patients with fasting TG levels <500 mg/dL. Omega-3 fatty acids and fibrates are LY2090314 reasonable first drug options for patients with TG >= 500 mg/dL and often are used to lower TG levels with the objective of reducing pancreatitis risk, although a statin or niacin may also be reasonable options. Combination lipid drug therapy

may be needed to achieve both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goals for CHD prevention in patients with elevated TG levels, particularly those with TG >= 500 mg/dL. Additional clinical outcomes data

are needed to provide a more evidence-based rationale for clinical lipid management of hypertriglyceridemic patients. (C) 2012 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, open-field and shade-enclosure, and four gypsum doses, to find the best environmental option in terms of physiological, morphometric characteristics and with optimum yield in two crops, oregano and thyme in Baja California Sur, Mexico. One cultivar of oregano and one of thyme Nutlin-3 chemical structure were grown in shade-enclosure and open-field environments and evaluated for photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass and yield. The results showed significant differences between environmental conditions, crops and their interaction.

Gypsum doses learn more had no significant effect on any of the variables measured. For both species shade-enclosure variables measured were more favorable than open-field. In general, of the two crops, oregano performed better than thyme under shade-enclosure conditions, except for Chl a, b, total and leaf water potential which were higher in thyme. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

Since ovarian endometrioma is frequently diagnosed in women of reproductive age, laparoscopic excision of the endometrioma is performed for most cases. However, endometriomas frequently recurs even after repeated surgical procedures. The aim of our study is to identify risk factors for recurrence and re-recurrence of endometriomas after the first and second laparoscopic excision.

Material & Methods:

We retrospectively evaluated 173 patients who had a minimum of one year postoperative follow-up after the laparoscopic excision of endometriomas. Ten and eight factors were evaluated to assess their effect on the risk of recurrence and re-recurrence, respectively.

By using T-1 = 500 ms as single threshold for all dGEMRIC T-1 map

By using T-1 = 500 ms as single threshold for all dGEMRIC T-1 maps, these values became 47%, 58% and 55%, whereas they were 47%, 79% and 70% for morphologic evaluation.

Conclusions: Standardized dGEMRIC can increase the sensitivity in detecting abnormal cartilage in FAI and has the potential to improve

the clinical interpretation of dGEMRIC measurements LDK378 in FAI, by removing the effect of inter- and intra-patient T-1 variability. (C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

A review of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe disorder described in patients with renal disease, appears as timely as the pathogenic role of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GdBCAs) has now been convincingly demonstrated, leading to preventive guidelines.

Recent findings

The INCB024360 supplier link between NSF and gadolinium (Gd) exposure has been reinforced by the identification of Gd in the skin of patients who denied having been exposed to GdBCA and nevertheless

developed the disease, suggesting that the few cases reported in the absence of Gd exposure could be explained by recall bias. Experimental studies have shown that repeated infusions of gadodiamide to rats reproduced the disease. Exposure of monocyte cultures to Gd led to secretion of numerous cytokines and growth factors which could induce fibrosis. Recent studies confirmed the association with infusion of the less stable linear GdBCAs, especially gadodiamide, and the role of high dosing of GdBCA, as performed in magnetic resonance angiography. Differences in the choice of GdBCA and angiography technique might explain wide reporting variations across centres.


NSF appears as a iatrogenic disease linked to the infusion of GdBCA. Its incidence can be reduced by avoiding exposure of patients with stages 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease to GdBCA.”
“Objective: The high tibial

osteotomy (HTO) is an effective strategy for treatment of painful medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Effects on cartilage quality are largely unknown. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) enables non-invasive assessment of cartilage see more glycosaminoglycan content. This study aimed to evaluate if dGEMRIC could detect relevant changes in cartilage glycosaminoglycan content following HTO.

Design: Ten patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis underwent a dGEMRIC scan prior to HTO, and after bone healing and subsequent hardware removal. A dGEMRIC index (T1Gd) was used for changes in cartilage glycosaminoglycan content, a high T1Gd indicating a high glycosaminoglycan content and vice versa. Radiographic analysis included mechanical axis and tibial slope measurement.

Contact-angle measurements on the surface of the p(HEMA-co-PEG-MA

Contact-angle measurements on the surface of the p(HEMA-co-PEG-MA) films demonstrated that the copolymer gave rise to a significant hydrophilic surface in comparison with the homopolymer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The blood protein adsorption was significantly reduced on the surface of the copolymer hydrogels in comparison with the control homopolymer of HEMA. Model antibiotic (i.e., minocycline)

release experiments were performed in physiological buffer saline solutions with a continuous flow release find more system. The amount of minocycline release was shown to be dependent on the HEMA/PEG-MA ratio. The hydrogels have good antifouling properties and therefore are suitable candidates for wound dressing and other tissue engineering applications. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112:1012-1020, 2009″

Thromboembolic events occur following musculoskeletal injury, and some have serious sequelae, including death. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events and its relationship with risk factors in ambulatory patients with ankle fracture requiring open reduction and internal fixation.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 2478 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of an ankle fracture at any one of three university hospitals between January 1, 1997, and April 30, 2005. One thousand five hundred and forty patients meeting the inclusion criteria and with complete records (minimum follow-up, six months) were identified. The median this website age of the patients at the time of surgery was forty-six years, and there was an equal proportion of male and female patients. Fracture types included 45% unimalleolar fractures, 31% bimalleolar, and 24% trimalleolar. Charts were PFTα reviewed to identify thromboembolic

events, risk factors (neoplasia, hormone use, pregnancy, blood dyscrasia, history of a previous thromboembolic event, a current history of smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, or paralysis), and use of thromboprophylactic agents. A thromboembolic event was defined as symptomatic when deep venous thrombosis was confirmed with use of Doppler ultrasonography or when pulmonary embolism was confirmed with use of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy or helical computed tomography.

Results: The incidence of thromboembolic events was 2.99% (forty-six patients), with 2.66% (forty-one patients) involving a deep venous thrombosis and 0.32% (five patients) involving a nonfatal pulmonary embolism. There were no fatal pulmonary emboli recorded. The incidence did not differ among hospitals. Of the 1540 patients, 16.43% received thromboprophylaxis during their hospital stay and for six weeks (for the 10.78% taking low-molecular-weight heparin) or three months (for the 5.

Physicians should consider this discrepancy when creating their t

Physicians should consider this discrepancy when creating their treatment plans.”
“In this review, we describe

technical developments in breath analysis and its applications in clinical diagnosis, monitoring disease state, and assessing environmental exposure. Breath tests have been successfully employed in clinical analyses for symptoms including lung disease, oxidative stress, gastrointestinal disease, metabolic disorders, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

Although gas chromatography has been used mainly for the analysis of volatile constituents in breath samples, other techniques ON-01910 cell line (e.g., sensors and lasers) have also been used satisfactorily. The analytical results of breath analysis can be derived both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, evaluation of the data from different approaches BIX 01294 in vivo remains insufficient because of the lack of standardized procedures and poor methods of validation. Further research is therefore required to expand the applicability of breath analysis in clinical diagnosis of diseases. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The commercial value of marine Nannochloropsis oculata has been recognized due to its high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (> 50 % w/w). To make it as a profitable bioresource, one of the most desirable goals is to develop a quality-controlled, cost-effective, and large-scale

photobioreactor for N. oculata growth. Generally, closed culture system can offer many advantages over open system such as small space requirement, controllable process and low risk of contamination. However, oxygen accumulation is often a detrimental factor for enclosed microalgal culture that has seriously hampered the development of microalga-related industries. In this study, we proposed to use fluorochemical as oxygen carrier to overcome the challenge where four liquid fluorochemicals namely perfluorooctyl bromide, perfluorodecalin, methoxynonafluorobutane, and ethoxynonafluorobutane were investigated separately. Our results

showed that the microalgal proliferation with different fluorinated liquids was similar and comparable to the culture without a fluorochemical. When cultured in the photobioreactor with 60 % oxygen atmosphere, the N. oculata can grow up in all the fluorochemical photobioreactors, learn more but completely inhibited in the chamber without a fluorochemical. Moreover, the perfluorooctyl bromide system exhibited the most robust efficacy of oxygen removal in the culture media (perfluorooctyl bromide > perfluorodecalin > methoxynonafluorobutane > ethoxynonafluorobutane), and yielded a > 3-fold increase of biomass production after 5 days. In summary, the developed fluorochemical photobioreactors offer a feasible means for N. oculata growth in closed and large-scale setting without effect of oxygen inhibition.”

The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) began in 1999.

Callose is the predominant luminal component of the nascent cross

Callose is the predominant luminal component of the nascent cross-wall or cell plate, but is not a component of intact mature cell walls, which are composed primarily of cellulose, pectins and xyloglucans. Widely accepted models postulate that callose comprises a transient, rapid spreading force for the expansion of membrane networks during cytokinesis. In this study, we clone and characterize an Arabidopsis gene, MASSUE/AtGSL8, selleck chemical which encodes a putative callose synthase. massue mutants are seedling-lethal and have a striking cytokinesis-defective phenotype. Callose deposition was delayed in the cell plates of massue mutants. Mutant cells were occasionally bi- or multi-nucleate, with cell-wall

stubs, and we frequently observed gaps at the junction between cross-walls and parental cell walls. The results suggest that the timely deposition of callose is essential for the completion of plant cytokinesis. Surprisingly, confocal analysis revealed that the cell-plate membrane compartment forms and expands,

seemingly as far as the parental wall, prior to the appearance of callose. We discuss the possibility that callose may be required to establish a lasting connection between the nascent cross-wall and the parental cell wall.”
“To date, the identification of the novel multifunctional properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitors “”known as cystatins”" is the great of interests for molecular biologists. The efficient check details production, purification and correctly folded form of these proteins are the most important requirements for their any basic research. To the best of our knowledge, maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion tags are being used to overcome the impediment to their heterologous recombinant expression in Escherichia coli as insoluble and bio-inactive inclusion bodies. In the present work, to evaluate the expression efficiency of a cystatin molecule in E. coli cells by using MBP tags, the expression of Celosia cystatin was studied in two different strains of this bacterium. The quantitative analysis results based on the one-step

purification yield of the fused product showed the excellency of the Quisinostat Epigenetics inhibitor E. coli TB1 strain in comparison to E. coli DH5 alpha for the high-level production of active product.”
“The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of angiosperms comprises a group of undifferentiated cells which divide to maintain the meristem and also give rise to all the above-ground structures of the plant. Previous studies revealed that the Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE10 [AGO10, also called PINHEAD (PNH) or ZWILLE (ZLL)] gene is one of the critical SAM regulators, but the mechanism by which AGO10 modulates the SAM is unknown. In the present study we show that AGO10 genetically represses microRNA165/166 (miR165/166) for SAM maintenance as well as establishment of leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity.

The results showed that Al treatment did not affect B content of

The results showed that Al treatment did not affect B content of roots (B content of Al-treated and non-treated plants were identical), while B treatment, particularly in higher concentrations, decreased Al content of roots compared with the control plants. In addition, the highest B concentration prevented the inhibitory effect of Al on the root length of plants. High concentrations of B also resulted in the decrease

PF-562271 chemical structure of enzyme activities involved in phenolic compounds (i.e., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase), decrease of lignin content and wall-bound phenols under Al stress, thereby ameliorating Al toxicity. The results suggest that the requirement of flax plants for B under Al stress conditions is higher than that required for growth in normal conditions without Al. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”

Viruses are the most common causes of respiratory tract infections in children. The implementation of rapid virology assays can identify the most common pathogens involved. This study was undertaken on Iranian children less than 6 years old with respiratory infection.

Methods: A total of 202 specimens were tested for the presence of 9 respiratory viruses by developing 3 multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and 1 uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays.

Results: Viral pathogens were detected in 92 samples (45.5%) with 5.4% having dual infections. Overall, respiratory syncytial virus was the most frequently identified virus (16.8%), followed by adenovirus (14.4%), influenza selleckchem A virus (4.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (4.4%), parainfluenza virus-1 (2.9%), and both influenza B virus and hMPV (0.49).

Conclusions: Respiratory tract infection is a frequent cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and a common

reason for admission in acute care hospitals and outpatients STA-9090 chemical structure visits. Appropriate diagnostic testing is important for specific diagnosis at an early stage of the illness because of the similarity in clinical presentation of patients with different viral infections caused by several respiratory pathogens.”
“Interplay of discharge and gas flow in the atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated with three different discharge modes [N. Jiang, A. L. Ji, and Z. X. Cao, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013308 (2009); N. Jiang, A. L. Ji, and Z. X. Cao, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033302 (2010)] has been investigated by simultaneous photographing of both plasma plumes and gas flows in the ambient, with the former being visualized by using an optical schlieren system. Gas flow gains a forward momentum from discharge except for the case of overflow jets at smaller applied voltages. Larger applied voltage implies an elongated plasma jet only for single-electrode mode; for dielectric barrier discharge jet the plume length maximizes at a properly applied voltage.

These results suggest that the 14G8 monoclonal antibody could hav

These results suggest that the 14G8 monoclonal antibody could have useful therapeutic applications.”
“Past genetic studies have shown three independent loci designated O, R and M control spathe color in Anthurium andraeanum (Hort.). To evaluate the genetic model and to understand the control of anthocyanin biosynthesis at the molecular level, the expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and F3′H, was examined at the mRNA and protein levels and correlated to anthocyanin content and spathe color in eight genetically characterized anthurium cultivars representing different states of the O, R and M loci. The results showed

that the expression of F3H and ANS was co-regulated by a putative transcription factor encoded by the R locus, and the expression of DFR was regulated by a putative transcription factor GSK1838705A encoded by the O locus. White cultivars, which were in the homozygous recessive state for either O or R or both, exhibited reduced expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and hence had negligible levels of anthocyanin. Cultivars that were mm displayed reduced expression of F3′H suggesting that it may either encode a defective form of the F3′H gene or a regulator that controls its expression. Additionally, a correlation between anthocyanin abundance and the expression of F3′H buy AZD7762 in the red cultivars suggested

that F3′H expression may be a key control point in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in anthurium and hence plays a major role in influencing the shade intensity in red cultivars. These findings provide evidence in support of the genetic model for color inheritance in the spathe.”
“Introduction Recent advances support the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis as a unique systemic disease because occasional extrapancreatic lesions such as sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialoadenitis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis show similar pathological

features with fibrosis and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and are steroid responsive. Based on these findings, several diagnostic criteria have been proposed.

Materials and methods Although AIP is accepted worldwide as a unique clinical entity, pathogeneic mechanism PR-171 supplier still remains unclear. To clarify it, genetic background, Immoral immunity, candidates of target antigens including self-antigens and molecular mimicry from microbes, cellular immunity including regulatory T cells, complement system, and experimental models are reviewed.

Results Based on these findings, we have proposed a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AIP in the biphasic mechanism of “”induction”" and “”progression.”" In the early stage, initial response to self-antigens (LF, CA-II, CA-IV, PSTI, or alpha-fodrin) or molecular mimicry (Helicobacter pylori) is induced by decreased naive regulatory T cells (Tregs), and Th1 cells release proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-1b, IL-2, and TNF-alpha).


To investigate


To investigate KPT-8602 in vitro the characteristics of mismatch negativity (MMN) in chronic pain patients and the effect of chronic pain on MMN morphology in order to supply the neurophysiological evidence on preattentive processing abnormalities in chronic pain patients.

Study Design.

We evaluated the auditory MMN to frequency deviance in patients with chronic pain and healthy controls. Emotion was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and pain intensity was assessed using the short-form McGill

Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ).

Subjects and Settings.

Subjects included 20 outpatients with chronic pain lasting for at least 6 months and 20 healthy controls.


MMN latencies in chronic pain patients were significantly delayed relative to healthy controls (P < 0.001). MMN latency was positively correlated with duration of chronic pain and negatively correlated with the SF-MPQ affective index. MMN amplitudes were similar between chronic pain patients and controls, and MMN morphology did not correlate with age, education level, BDI, BAI, visual analog scale, or the SF-MPQ sensory index.


The preattentive processing speed in chronic pain patients is decreased; the longer a

person experiences chronic pain and the more severe the affective component of pain are, the more likely they are to demonstrate preattentive processing difficulties.”
“Background and objective: Whether the therapeutic nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) derived from manual titration is the same as derived from automatic titration is controversial. The purpose of this study NVP-BSK805 was to compare the therapeutic pressure derived from manual titration with automatic titration.

Methods: Fifty-one patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) (mean apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) = 50.6 +/- 18.6 learn more events/h) who were newly diagnosed after an overnight full polysomnography

and who were willing to accept CPAP as a long-term treatment were recruited for the study. Manual titration during full polysomnography monitoring and unattended automatic titration with an automatic CPAP device (REMstar Auto) were performed. A separate cohort study of one hundred patients with OSA (AHI = 54.3 +/- 18.9 events/h) was also performed by observing the efficacy of CPAP derived from manual titration.

Results: The treatment pressure derived from automatic titration (9.8 +/- 2.2 cmH(2)O) was significantly higher than that derived from manual titration (7.3 +/- 1.5 cmH(2)O; P < 0.001) in 51 patients. The cohort study of 100 patients showed that AHI was satisfactorily decreased after CPAP treatment using a pressure derived from manual titration (54.3 +/- 18.9 events/h before treatment and 3.3 +/- 1.7 events/h after treatment; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The results suggest that automatic titration pressure derived from REMstar Auto is usually higher than the pressure derived from manual titration.


RESULTS: Patients with detectable C-peptide leve


RESULTS: Patients with detectable C-peptide levels required lower insulin check details doses (p<0.009) and had similar HbA1C results (p = 0.182) and fewer chronic complications (p = 0.029).

CONCLUSION: C-peptide detection was common in Type-1 diabetics, particularly

shortly after being diagnosed. This result may have clinical implications.”
“The chemical composition of exhausted coffee waste generated in a soluble coffee industry was investigated. The chemical characterization included elemental analysis, mineral composition and ash content, summative composition; acidic functional groups, lipophilic extractives, total polyphenols, condensed tannins determination and FTIR analysis. The spent coffee samples showed high carbon (>58%), TPCA-1 mw low nitrogen (<2%), and low ash (<1%) contents and low polarity coefficient (O + N)/C (<0.5). The summative composition reveals that extractives are the main components of exhausted coffee

wastes (54%). This percentage includes lipophilic fractions (24%), ethanol and water soluble compounds (5%), and compounds solubilized in 1% NaOH (26%). Lignin and polysaccharides were found in a similar proportion between 20 and 26%. The GC analysis of monosaccharide showed about 60% glucose and 40% mannose. The main components in the lipophilic extractives are free fatty acids (>60%) of which more than 30% was identified to be n-hexadecanoic acid. Total polyphenols and tannins represent <6% and <4% of the exhausted coffee wastes, respectively. Assignments of the bands of the obtained FTIR spectra confirm the presence of lipids, polysaccharides and chlorogenic acid. Exhausted coffee wastes showed characteristics for various potential applications such as biodiesel production, as a source of antioxidants and as a biosorbent of hydrophobic pollutants. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Pregabalin has a similar pharmacologic profile to that of its developmental predecessor

gabapentin but has shown greater analgesic activity in rodent models of neuropathic pain.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the effects of 2 different doses of pregabalin and placebo on postoperative pain and morphine consumption.

METHODS: Ninety patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were included in the study and randomly divided into 3 groups in a doubled-blinded see more manner. They were given 150 mg of pregabalin (group P300, n = 30), 300 mg of pregabalin (group P600, n = 30), or placebo capsules (group C, n = 30) 4 hours before the induction of anesthesia; they received a second dose of the drug 12 hours postoperatively. Morphine consumption, nausea, and vomiting, visual analogue scale-pain intensity (VAS-PI), sedation scores, and dissatisfaction scores were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours after operation.

RESULTS: Morphine consumption at 24 hours was 40.80 (3.42) mg, 33.79 (5.

01) The expression of TLR2 in the stroma was not observed in the

01). The expression of TLR2 in the stroma was not observed in the group of healthy dogs at all stages. The surface epithelium of cervix in dogs with pyometra expressed TLR2 significantly more intensely than did the stoma, whereas the expression of TLR2 during oestrus and dioestrus was absent in the stroma of cervix. This study provides the first report of immunohistochemical localization of TLR2 in the canine reproductive tract. In the present study, TLR2 was expressed in endometrial epithelium but was absent in the endometrial stroma of healthy dogs at all oestrous cycle stages. These findings suggest differential expression of TLR in endometrial cells. On the other hand, the lack of TLR2

in the stroma of healthy uteri of dogs may predispose to infection from the invading pathogens once the epithelial cells have been destroyed by the pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.”
“Aim: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation A-1210477 (CPR) quality is associated with survival outcomes after out-ofhospital cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of simplified dispatcher CPR instructions Adavosertib mw to improve

the chest compression (CC) quality during simulated pediatric cardiac arrest in public places.

Methods: Adult bystanders recruited in public places were randomized to receive one of two scripted dispatcher CPR instructions: (1) “”Push as hard as you can”" (PUSH HARD) selleck inhibitor or (2) “”Push approximately 2 inches”" (TWO INCHES). A pediatric manikin with realistic CC characteristics (similar to a 6-year-old child), and a CPR recording defibrillator was used for quantitative CC data collection during a 2-min simulated pediatric scenario. The primary outcome was average CC depth treated as a continuous variable. Secondary outcomes included compliance with American Heart Association (AHA) CPR targets. Analysis was by two-sided unpaired t-test and Chi-square test, as appropriate.

Results: 128 out of 140 providers screened met inclusion/exclusion criteria and all 128 consented. The average CC depth (mean (SEM)) was greater in PUSH HARD compared to

TWO INCHES (43 (1) vs. 36 (1) mm, p<0.01) and met AHA targets more often (39% (25164) vs. 20% (13164), p=0.02). CC rates trended higher in the PUSH HARD group (93 (4) vs. 82 (4) CC/min, p=0.06). More providers did not achieve full chest recoil with PUSH HARD compared to TWO INCHES (53% (34164) vs. 75% (48164), p=0.01).

Conclusions: Simplified dispatcher assisted pediatric CPR instructions: “”Push as hard as you can”" was associated with lay bystanders providing deeper and faster CCs on a simulated, 6-year-old pediatric manikin. However, percentage of providers leaning between CC increased. The potential effect of these simplified instructions in younger children remains unanswered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.