METHODS: Between January 2007 and Aug 2008, twenty histopatho

\n\nMETHODS: Between January 2007 and Aug 2008, twenty histopathologically diagnosed esophageal cancer patients underwent 25 PET/CT scans (three patients had two scans and one patient had three scans) for restaging after surgical CBL0137 mw resection and radiotherapy. The standard reference for tumor recurrence was histopathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up for at least ten months after F-18-FDG PET/CT examinations.\n\nRESULTS: Tumor recurrence was confirmed histopathologically in seven of the 20 patients (35%) and by clinical and radiological follow-up in 13 (65%). F-18-FDG PET/CT was positive in 14 patients

(68.4%) and negative in six (31.6%). F-18-FDG PET/CT was true positive in 11 patients, false

positive in three and true negative in six. Overall, the accuracy of F-18-FDG PET/CT was 85%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%, and positive predictive value (PPV) was 78.6%. The three false positive PET/CT findings comprised chronic inflammation of mediastinal lymph nodes (n = 2) and anastomosis inflammation (n = 1). PET/CT demonstrated distant metastasis in 10 patients. F-18-FDG PET/CT imaging-guided salvage treatment in nine patients was performed. Treatment regimens were changed in 12 (60%) patients after introducing F-18-FDG PET/CT into their conventional post-treatment follow-up program.\n\nCONCLUSION: Epigenetic Reader Do inhibitor Whole body F-18-FDG PET/CT is effective in detecting relapse of esophageal cancer

after surgical resection and radiotherapy. It could also have important clinical impact on the management of esophageal cancer, influencing both clinical restaging and salvage treatment of patients. (C) 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. BVD-523 molecular weight All rights reserved.”
“Immune mediated neuropathies are uncommon but important to diagnose because they are potentially treatable. This chapter summarizes the clinical approach to diagnosis of Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and related neuropathies which are thought to be caused by direct autoimmune attack on peripheral nerves. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: The prevention and potential reversal of interstitial fibrosis is a central strategy for the treatment of progressive renal disease. This strategy requires a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic processes involved in progressive renal fibrosis.\n\nAreas covered: The developmental processes in which Wnt (combination of ‘wingless’ and ‘INT’)/frizzled signaling is involved is discussed in this review, including cell fate determination, cell polarity, tissue patterning and control of cell proliferation. These pathways are also active in the adult where they play key roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, wound repair and chronic tissue damage.

FLuc-expressing iPS-CM generated

in this study will enabl

FLuc-expressing iPS-CM generated

in this study will enable further studies to reduce their loss, increase long-term survival and functional integration upon transplantation.”
“This study aimed to elucidate the clinical implication of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/centromeric probe for chromosome 17 (HER2/CEP17) ratio and HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results in patients with HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization GSK2879552 concentration (FISH)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who received first-line trastuzumab plus taxane chemotherapy.\n\nUsing clinical data of patients with HER2 FISH-positive MBC who received first-line trastuzumab plus taxane chemotherapy, we analyzed the clinical outcome according to the HER2/CEP17

ratio and HER2 IHC analysis.\n\nFifty-two women were analyzed. The median age was 50 years (range 27-69 years). Patients with a HER2/CEP17 ratio a parts per thousand yen3.0 had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (17.2 vs. 7.4 months; p = 0.002) with a tendency toward higher response rate (RR) (p = 0.325) and longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.129). Patients with HER2 IHC 1+ had significantly shorter OS (14.0 vs. 42.4 months; p = 0.013) along with a tendency toward lower RR (p = 0.068) and shorter PFS (p = 0.220). In the multivariate analysis, HER2/CEP17 ratio < 3.0 (p = 0.004) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS 2 (p = 0.015) were

significant factors for shorter LY411575 price PFS, Vorinostat in vivo and HER2 IHC 1+ (p = 0.015) and ECOG PS 2 (p = 0.036) were significant factors for poor OS.\n\nOur data support that HER2/CEP17 ratios and HER2 IHC scores may predict clinical outcome after first-line trastuzumab plus taxane chemotherapy in patients with HER2 FISH-positive MBC.”
“Ubiquitination plays a key role in protein degradation and signal transduction. Ubiquitin is a small protein modifier that is adducted to lysine residues by the combined function of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes and is removed by deubiquitinating enzymes. Characterization of ubiquitination sites is important for understanding the role of this modification in cellular processes and disease. However, until recently, large-scale characterization of endogenous ubiquitination sites has been hampered by the lack of efficient enrichment techniques. The introduction of antibodies that specifically recognize peptides with lysine residues that harbor a di-glycine remnant (K-epsilon-GG) following tryptic digestion has dramatically improved the ability to enrich and identify ubiquitination sites from cellular lysates. We used this enrichment technique to study the effects of proteasome inhibition by MG-132 and deubiquitinase inhibition by PR-619 on ubiquitination sites in human Jurkat cells by quantitative high performance mass spectrometry.

Although the dog was treated with a multi-combination chemotherap

Although the dog was treated with a multi-combination chemotherapy, the neurological abnormalities progressed and the dog was euthanized. Myelographic examination and necropsy revealed the extradural lesion formed by AML-M4 around the cervical spinal cord and this lesion was considered as a cause of GSK2879552 the neurological signs.”
“One new species, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) anala Chen et Zhou, sp.nov, and one newly recorded species, B. (Z.) armillata (Hering, 1938), from China are described and illustrated. The male of B. (Z.) armillata (Hering) was discovered for the first time and as a result the species is moved from subgenus Bactrocera to subgenus Zeugodacus. In addition,

the morphological differences and comparing illustrations of B. (Z.) adusta (Wang et Zhao) and B. (Z.) biguttata (Bezzi), are provided.”
“In

many plants, leaves that are young and/or old (senescent) are not green. One adaptive hypothesis proposed that leaf LY411575 molecular weight color change could be a warning signal reducing insect attack. If leaf coloration involves less herbivory, it remains unclear why leaves in many species are constantly green. To examine whether green leaves reduce herbivory by physical defense as an alternative to the supposed warning signal of red leaves, we conducted comparative analyses of leaf color and protective tissues of 76 woody species in spring. The protective features (trichomes, enhanced cuticle and multiple epidermis) and the distribution of red pigments within leaves were examined in both young and mature leaves. We observed that redness was more frequent in young leaves than in senescent leaves. Compared to 36 species with red young leaves, 40 species with green young leaves showed a significantly higher incidence of enhanced cuticle and trichomes in both phylogenetic Vorinostat price and non-phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the multiple origins of mechanical protection were generally associated with loss of red coloration. Our finding of relatively poor mechanical protection in red young leaves provides additional

evidence for the adaptive explanation of leaf color change.”
“A 2.5-year old male red-necked wallaby (Macropodus rufogriseus) kept privately in an outdoor enclosure in Germany died with severe jaundice and abdominal enlargement. Post mortem examination revealed ascites, and multiple nodular lesions in liver, diaphragm, omentum, mesentery, spleen, lung, hepatic and thoracic lymph nodes. Histologically, the nodules consisted of predominantly fertile larval tissue of a taeniid cestode, necrosis and granulomatous inflammation. Echinococcus multilocularis infection was confirmed by PCR. Macropodids have therefore to be added to the list of intermediate hosts which can develop alveolar echinococcosis.”
“Metalloproteomics is defined as the structural and functional characterization of putative metal-binding proteins on a genome-wide scale.

9%) AMA also appeared to improve medical management Indeed, com

9%). AMA also appeared to improve medical management. Indeed, compared to the literature, we observed lower incidence in secondary hospitalization (6%), delayed treatment

(6%), reduced relative LY2606368 clinical trial dose-intensity (RDI) (no patient with RDI < 80%), toxic death (0%), and red blood cell transfusion (13%).\n\nConclusions: AMA appears to improve R-CHOP therapy management. However, comparative studies are needed to demonstrate the advantage of the AMA over standard management, in terms of therapeutic compliance, progression-free survival, and medico-economics efficacy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, we present a general class of BAM neural networks with discontinuous neuron activations and impulses. By using the fixed point theorem in differential inclusions theory, we investigate the existence of periodic solution for this neural network. By constructing the suitable Lyapunov function, we give a sufficient condition which ensures the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the periodic solution. The results of this paper show that the Forti’s conjecture is true for BAM neural networks

with discontinuous neuron activations and impulses. Further, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results obtained in this paper. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Broadcasting is an important operation in wireless networks where control information is usually propagated as broadcasts for selleck chemicals llc the realization of most networking protocols. In traditional ad hoc check details networks, broadcasts are conducted on a common channel, which is shared by all nodes in the network. However, in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks, unlicensed users may observe heterogeneous spectrum availability, which is unknown to other unlicensed users before the control information was broadcast. Thus, it is extremely challenging that broadcasts can be successfully conducted without knowing the spectrum availability information in advance. In addition, since broadcast collisions

(i.e., simultaneous reception of broadcast messages at the same node) often lead to the waste of network resources, they should be efficiently mitigated in multihop scenarios. In this paper, a quality-of-service (QoS)-based broadcast protocol under Blind Information for multihop CR ad hoc networks, i.e., QB(2)IC, is proposed with the aim of having a high success rate and short broadcast delay. In our design, we do not assume that unlicensed users are aware of the network topology, the spectrum availability information, and time synchronization information. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that investigates the broadcast issue in multihop CR ad hoc networks under blind information. Simulation results show that our proposed QB(2)IC protocol outperforms other broadcast schemes in terms of a higher success rate and shorter average broadcast delay.

This paper describes a public health approach that combines a nat

This paper describes a public health approach that combines a national surveillance program with epidemiologic, laboratory, and prevention research to address knowledge gaps in rates and risk factors for inhibitor development, and in knowledge and behaviors of patients and providers, in addition to screening and treatment practices. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Background: A strong, LY2835219 nmr consistent association between childhood irradiation

and subsequent thyroid cancer provides an excellent model for studying radiation carcinogenesis.\n\nMethods: We evaluated gene expression in 63 paired RNA specimens from frozen normal and tumour thyroid tissues with individual iodine-131 (I-131) doses (0.008-8.6 Gy, no unirradiated controls) received from Chernobyl fallout during childhood (Ukrainian-American cohort). Approximately PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 inhibitor half of these randomly selected samples (32

tumour/normal tissue RNA specimens) were hybridised on 64 whole-genome microarrays (Agilent, 4 x 44 K). Associations between I-131 dose and gene expression were assessed separately in normal and tumour tissues using Kruskal – Wallis and linear trend tests. Of 155 genes significantly associated with I-131 after Bonferroni correction and with >= 2-fold increase per dose category, we selected 95 genes. On the remaining 31 RNA samples these genes were used for validation purposes using qRT-PCR.\n\nResults: Expression of eight genes (ABCC3, C1orf9, C6orf62, FGFR1OP2, HEY2, NDOR1, STAT3, and UCP3) in normal tissue and six genes (ANKRD46, CD47, HNRNPH1, NDOR1, SCEL, and SERPINA1) in tumour tissue was significantly associated with I-131. PANTHER/DAVID pathway analyses demonstrated significant over-representation of genes coding for nucleic acid binding in normal and tumour tissues, and for p53, EGF, and FGF signalling pathways in tumour tissue.\n\nConclusion: The multistep process of radiation carcinogenesis

Selleck Bafilomycin A1 begins in histologically normal thyroid tissue and may involve dose-dependent gene expression changes.”
“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is now considered as a systemic disease originating in the lungs. The natural history of this disease reveals numerous extrapulmonary manifestations and co-morbidity factors that complicate the evolution of COPD. Recent publications have documented these systemic manifestations and co-morbidities and clarified somewhat the role of muscle dysfunction, nutritional anomalies, endocrine dysfunction, anaemia, osteoporosis and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders as well as lung cancer and psychological elements in this complex disease.

We constructed ecological networks from literature records and by

We constructed ecological networks from literature records and by rearing insects to investigate the importance of these seeds for insects, birds and mammals. We predicted the impacts of management on seed biomass, energy and the ecosystem service of

GSK1838705A order pest control across the whole farm.\n\nWe estimated seed and berry food resources of up to 33 metric tons of biomass and 560 GJ of energy on the farm. Potentially, more than 330 species use the seeds as a food resource, the overwhelming majority of which are invertebrates (82%) relying predominantly on non-crop and weed species. Generally, uncultivated semi-natural habitats such as woodland and mature hedgerows were more species-rich and had higher seed biomass and energy

than crop habitats throughout the year, but fallow land was disproportionately important for seeds during the summer. Models of increased management intensity revealed declines of up to 19% in seed biomass and energy and cascades through the network that resulted in a substantial decrease in potentially pest-controlling parasitoids. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Mixing of nebulized drugs is common in real life, but its consequences on aerosol output and granulometry are poorly known. METHODS: In an in vitro study I evaluated the effects on aerosol output, drug output, and aerosol particle size characteristics of mixing either beclomethasone dipropionate or budesonide with albuterol and ipratropium bromide. I tested the SideStream and VentStream-Pro nebulizers, run with the AirClinic compressor. Using the same fill volume in all experiments, I nebulized and evaluated Trichostatin A LY333531 cost each studied drug alone, and 2 drug mixtures: beclomethasone plus albuterol plus ipratropium; and budesonide plus albuterol plus ipratropium. I measured aerosol output via gravimetrics. I measured drug delivery by collecting the aerosol on a filter in the inspiratory limb, and the residual solution in the reservoir

and the circuit after nebulization, and assayed those liquids with chromatography. I measured particle size distribution via cascade impaction. RESULTS: Mixing tended to reduce drug output and to increase mass median aerodynamic diameter with the SideStream, but not always with the VentStream-Pro. However, the drug output always remained satisfactory and the mass median aerodynamic diameters were within the respirable range. When nebulized alone, the respirable mass of bronchodilators ranged from 18% to 40% of the nominal dose; when mixed, it ranged from 13% to 37%. When nebulized alone, the respirable mass of corticosteroids ranged from 10% to 24% of the nominal dose; when mixed, it ranged from 10% to 17%. CONCLUSIONS: Both the SideStream and VentStream-Pro have good aerosol performance in nebulizing budesonide or beclomethasone dipropionate alone, and when mixed with albuterol and ipratropitun bromide.

A 33-year-old alloimmunized woman was referred to our center at t

A 33-year-old alloimmunized woman was referred to our center at the 12th week of her third pregnancy for evaluation and follow up.

The laboratory work-up grouped her as belonging to “p” phenotype, associated with difficulties to find compatible blood for transfusion and a high incidence of recurrent miscarriage. At 36 weeks, a baby girl was born by induced labor due to fetal suffering. With a negative direct antiglobulin test but a positive elution test, she was in the neonatology ward for one week receiving luminotherapy. Homozygosity for a missense mutation Selleck BI-2536 at position 752 (c.752C > T) in the A4GALT gene was found to be responsible for the p phenotype. This mutation changes a proline to a leucine at codon 251 of the 4-alpha-galactosyltransferase. Recently, due to an imminent chirurgical intervention and the impossibility to have compatible blood available for transfusion. an autologous donation plan was designed to satisfy

probable demand. This case showed the need for blood bank facilities capable to respond satisfactorily to these situations in Argentina. This would facilitate the storage of cryopreserved blood from individuals with rare blood groups for homologous use or to develop rare blood donors programs.”
“The encapsulation of therapeutic cells permits the implantation of allogeneic and xenogeneic cells for the regulation of certain physiological processes damaged by the GSK923295 chemical structure death or senescence of host tissues. The encapsulation of pancreatic cells for the treatment of diabetes is emphasized; however, many of the techniques are applicable to a wide array. of mammalian cell applications. The summary of both established and novel encapsulation techniques, clinical trials, and commercial product developments highlights Selleck JQ1 the metered but steady pace of therapeutic cell encapsulation towards implementation. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“For market approval, new drug formulations (test) must demonstrate bioequivalence (BE) to at least one approved formulation (reference). If several formulations of a drug are already on the market, one might have to show

BE to more than one reference formulation. Similarly, if several test formulations have shown BE to a reference formulation, it will be of interest whether the test formulations are bioequivalent to each other. An enhanced statistical model to assess BE indirectly through a network meta-analysis is provided. Statistical properties of a parallel and a bridging approach are derived, in particular the relative statistical efficiency of the two approaches. The analysis is illustrated using individual subject data from two 3×3 crossover trials of metformin formulations, which have one of the formulations in common. The parallel estimate of relative bioavailability is confounded with between-trial differences, while the bridging estimate is not.


“Optic nerve atrophy and hypoplasia can be primary disorde


“Optic nerve atrophy and hypoplasia can be primary disorders or can result from trans-synaptic degeneration arising from cerebral visual find more impairment (CVI). Here we report six individuals with CVI and/or optic nerve abnormalities, born after an uneventful pregnancy and delivery, who have either de novo heterozygous missense mutations in NR2F1, also known as COUP-TFI, or deletions encompassing NR2F1. All affected individuals show mild to moderate intellectual impairment.

NR2F1 encodes a nuclear receptor protein that regulates transcription. A reporter assay showed that missense mutations in the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain and the putative ligand-binding domain decrease NR2F1 transcriptional activity. These findings indicate that NR2F1 plays an important role in the neurodevelopment of the visual system and that its disruption can lead to optic atrophy with intellectual disability.”
“Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed

to study the self-organization of C-60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular HDAC inhibitor assemblies having cylindrical 3-Methyladenine in vitro shape driven by charge repulsion

between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C-60-nanoparticles. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a human pathogen that can cause severe diseases such as encephalitis, keratitis and neonatal herpes. Control of HSV infection may be achieved by using small interfering (si)RNAs. We have designed and enzymatically produced pools of siRNAs targeting HSV. In addition to the target-specific effects, such siRNAs may induce innate immunity responses that may contribute to antiviral effects.

Here, we consider the expression of coagulation factors in the CN

Here, we consider the expression of coagulation factors in the CNS, the coagulopathy associated with focal cerebral ischemia (and its relationship to hemorrhagic transformation), the use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in ischemic stroke and its study in animal models, the impact of rt-PA on neuron and CNS structure and function, and matrix protease generation and matrix degradation and hemostasis.

Interwoven among these topics is evidence for interactions of coagulation factors with and within the CNS. How activation of hemostasis occurs in the cerebral tissues and how the brain responds are difficult questions that offer many research possibilities.”
“Introduction: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is regarded as a poor prognostic factor click here in many tumors. Conflicting data in many literatures were reported about the association between HER2 and poor prognosis in lung cancer.\n\nMethods: We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies from 1966 to the 12th week of 2010.

In absence of significant quality difference between positive and negative studies, combined hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated selleck products in terms of overall survival.\n\nResults: Forty studies(6135 patients) were included in the analysis. The pooled data showed that HER2 overexpression was a marker of poor prognosis in lung cancer. HR was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22-1.80) and 3.11 (95% CI: 2.26-4.28) for non-small this website cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay, respectively. In the NSCLC subgroup analysis of early stage and ethnicities using IHC and in SCLC subgroup of extensive stage using IHC, it also showed that HER2 overexpression determined by IHC was a marker of poor prognosis in NSCLC and SCLC. In other subgroup

of squamous cell carcinoma tested by IHC, the combined HR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.61-1.25), indicating that HER2 overexpression was not a prognostic factor for squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, in the subgroup analysis of HER2 amplification status of NSCLC using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we also found that HER2 amplification determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization was not significantly related to prognosis.\n\nConclusions: Although bias could be inevitable, this meta-analysis suggests that HER2 overexpression is a poor prognostic factor in lung cancer, especially for SCLC, adenocarcinoma, and early-stage NSCLC.”
“It has become necessary to assess the authenticity of beef origin because of concerns regarding human health hazards.

In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity (PAA)

In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity (PAA). The phenomenon is “predictive” because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is “anticipatory” because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an “activity” because it involves

changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does), but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. P5091 mw The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation JQ1 molecular weight bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical

implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications.”
“Biosurfactants are produced by microorganisms, especially those of the genus Pseudomonas. This study is concerned with the recovery of rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa P029-GVIIA, using molasses Selleck MK 2206 as substrate. A central compound design 2(3) in triplicate

at the central point was used to evaluate, the influence of the centrifugation time, the agitation speed, and the pH on the amount of rhamnolipids precipitated by HCl (2N). A 2(4) factorial design in triplicate at the central point was used to investigate the influence of the pH (3-10), temperature (30 to 50 degrees C), the concentration of carbon (1-3% w/v), and the agitation speed (100-200rpm) on the adsorption of rhamnolipids to activated carbon. The tests showed that the adsorption is governed particularly by the pH and the temperature, as well as by the temperaturexpH interaction. A pseudo-first order kinetic model successfully fitted the data, showing that the adsorbent had the ability to adsorb approximately 17.16mg of rhamnolipids/gram of activated carbon.”
“Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS.