Methods and resultsSixty-three STEMI patients at the time of index hospitalization and 10-month follow-up underwent coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound with iMap tissue characterization of the culprit artery. Proximal and culprit segments were analyzed. A higher percentage of necrotic tissue in the nonculprit segment was found in patients in the top soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) quartile compared with the other three quartiles (34.310.9 vs. 26.3
+/- 11.6%, P=0.041) in the acute setting. At 10-month follow-up the top quartile of sICAM-1 in both the acute and stable setting was associated with a lower percentage of fibrotic tissue, but a higher percentage of lipidic and necrotic tissue in the nonculprit segment. In the top quartile of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 BEZ235 in vitro during STEMI, a lower percentage buy VX-809 of fibrotic tissue (53.0 +/- 13.9 vs. 63.0 +/- 13.3%, P=0.014), higher percentage of lipidic tissue (11.7 +/- 3.1 vs. 9.4 +/- 2.4%, P=0.004), and higher percentage of necrotic tissue (33.4 +/- 11.6 vs. 25.7 +/- 11.3%, P=0.025) were found in the nonculprit segment.ConclusionNonculprit plaque vulnerability characteristics were associated with elevated plasma biomarkers for sICAM-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.”
“Context: Pancreatic fat content (PFC) may have deleterious effects on beta-cell function.\n\nObjective: We hypothesized that
ectopic fat deposition, in particular pancreatic fat accumulation, is related to beta-cell dysfunction in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).\n\nDesign, Setting and Participants: This was a cross-sectional study in 64 age-and body mass index-matched individuals, with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 16, 60% males), IFG (n = 29, 52% males), or IFG/IGT (n = 19, 63% males) was conducted.\n\nIntervention and Main Outcome Measures: Participants
underwent the following: selleckchem 1) a combined hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp, with subsequent arginine stimulation to quantify insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function; 2) proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess PFC and liver fat content (LFC); and 3) magnetic resonance imaging to quantify visceral (VAT) and sc (SAT) adipose tissue. The disposition index (DI; insulin sensitivity adjusted beta-cell function) was assessed.\n\nResults: IFG and IFG/IGT were more insulin resistant (P < 0.001) compared with NGT. Individuals with IFG/IGT had the lowest values of glucose-and arginine-stimulated C-peptide secretion (both P < 0.03) and DI (P < 0.001), relative to IFG and NGT. PFC and LFC gradually increased between NGT, IFG, and IFG/IGT (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively), whereas VAT and SAT were similar between groups. No direct associations were found between PFC, LFC, VAT, and SAT and C-peptide secretion.
“Most of the phosphorus in the resting seed is stored inside protein storage vacuoles as PA (phytic acid; InsP(6)). The biosynthesis and accumulation of PA can be detected beginning from a few days after anthesis and seem
to continue during seed development until maturation. The first step in PA biosynthesis is the formation of Ins3P by conversion of glucose 6-phosphate. This is then followed by a sequential and ordered phosphorylation of the remaining five positions of the inositol ring by a number of kinases, resulting in PA. Identification of low-PA mutants in cereals, legumes and Arabtdopsis is instrumental for resolving the biosynthetic pathway and identification GDC-0941 mouse of genes controlling the accumulation of PA. Mutations in
seven genes involved in the metabolism of PA have been identified and characterized among five plant species using GSK2879552 research buy induced mutagenesis and insertion elements. Understanding the biosynthetic pathway and genes controlling the accumulation of PA in plant seeds and how PA may balance the free phosphate is of importance for molecular breeding of crop plants, particularly cereals and legumes.”
“High altitude exposure normally leads to a marked natriuresis and diuresis. Acute mountain sickness is often associated with fluid retention, to which an elevated cortisol may contribute. Most investigators report a rise in resting cortisol with ascent, but little data exist regarding the cortisol response to
a day trekking. We therefore measured salivary cortisol during ascent to >5 000 m in a cohort of between 42-45 subjects following a 6-h trek (samples taken between 15:30-16:30 h) and between 15-20 subjects at rest (morning samples taken between 08:00-09:00 h). Morning resting cortisol [nmol/l, mean +/- sd, (range)] was 5.5 +/- 2.9 (2.13-13.61) at 1 300 m; this website 4.7 +/- 6.8 (1.4-27.02) at 3 400 m, and significantly (p = 0.002) rose between 4 270 m [3.5 +/- 2.1 (1.4-8.34)] and 5 150 m [14.5 +/- 30.3 (1.9-123.1)]. Post-exercise cortisol [nmol/l, mean +/- sd, (range)] dropped between 3 400 m [7 +/- 6 (1.5-33.3)] and 4270 m [4.2 +/- 4.8 (1.4-29.5)] (p = 0.001) followed by a significant rise in post-exercise cortisol between 4 270 m [4.2 +/- 4.8 (1.4-29.5)] and 5 150 m [9.2 +/- 10.2 (1.4-61.3)] (p<0.001). There were no significant associations between severity of acute mountain sickness and cortisol levels. There was a significant though weak correlation between cortisol post-exercise at 5 150 m and oxygen saturation at 5 150 m (rho = -0.451, p=0.004). In conclusion, this is the largest cohort to have their resting and post-exercise cortisol levels ascertained at high altitude.
g. for infliximab) and 39% were restricted in prescribing biologic agents because of financial constraints. A quality-of-life score was either inadequately or never recorded in outpatient records in 81% of units, increasing to 88% for
inpatient records. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score was inadequately or never recorded in 79% of outpatient records and 82% of inpatient records.\n\nUnits varied in their capacity to meet BAD guidelines and standards. Among the most significant deficiencies identified were a shortage of specialist dermatology nurses, treatment delivery by untrained nurses and financial constraints on the prescription of biologics for psoriasis. Gaps in data collection and record keeping jeopardize efforts to improve standards of care.”
“Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) play an important role in innate immunity against pathogens including HIV. These cells are check details also important viral reservoirs in the central nervous system and secrete inflammatory mediators and toxins that affect the tissue environment and function of surrounding cells. In the era of antiretroviral therapy, there are fewer of these inflammatory mediators. Proteomic approaches including surface enhancement laser desorption ionization, one- and two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem
mass spectrometry have been used selleck products to uncover the proteins produced by in vitro HIV-infected monocytes, macrophages, and microglia. These approaches have advanced the understanding of novel mechanisms for HIV replication and neuronal damage. They
have also been used in tissue macrophages that restrict HIV replication to understand the mechanisms of restriction for future therapies. In this review, we summarize the proteomic studies on HIV-infected mononuclear phagocytes and discuss other recent proteomic approaches that are starting to be applied to this field. As proteomic instruments and methods evolve to become more sensitive and quantitative, future studies are likely to identify more proteins that can be targeted for diagnosis or therapy and to uncover novel disease mechanisms.”
“Two JQ-EZ-05 in vitro of bioactive natural products were founded in a brown alga, Sargassum fulvellum. After isolation and purification, the molecular structures of these two products were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and GC-mass spectroscopy. The two compounds were identified to be 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl) -glycerol (POGG) and 1-O-myristoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl) – glycerol (MOGG) which were obtained from Sargassum fulvellum for the first time. POGG and MOGG showed fibrinolytic activity in the reaction system of pro-u-PA and plasminogen.”
“Predators often show strong plasticity of optimal foraging strategies.
We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection.”
“A new series of 1,3-thiazole and benzo[d] thiazole derivatives 10-15 has been developed, characterized, and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 25-200 mu g/mL against Gram+ve organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-ve BEZ235 mw organisms such as Escherichia coli (E.
coli), and the fungal strain Aspergillus niger (A. niger) by the cup plate method. Ofloxacin and ketoconazole (10 mu g/mL) were used as reference standards for antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Compounds 11 and 12 showed notable antibacterial and antifungal activities at higher concentrations (125-200 mu g/mL), whereas benzo[d] thiazole derivatives 13 and 14 were found to display significant antibacterial or antifungal activity (50-75 mu g/mL) against the Gram+ve, Gram-ve bacteria, or fungal cells used in the present study. In addition, a correlation between calculated and determined partition coefficient (log P) was established which allows future development of compounds within this series to be carried out based on calculated log P values. Moreover, compounds 13 and 14 show that the optimum logarithm of partition coefficient
(log P) should be around 4.”
“Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by activating the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor. Some studies have demonstrated that the autoantibodies against angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1-AAs) cause www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-06463922.html functional effects, which is similar to those observed for www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1120212-jtp-74057.html the natural agonist
Ang II. In this study, we investigated the effects of AT1-AAs on cardiomyocytes’ structure and function. Male Wistar rats were immunized with synthetic peptides corresponding to the second extracellular loop of AT1 receptor and Freund’s adjuvant. The titers of AT1-AAs in rat serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay every week. Hemodynamic analysis and heart weight (HW) indices were measured on the 4th and 8th months after initial immunization, respectively. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to observe the hypertrophic effects of AT1-AAs. Results showed that systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly increased, the titers of AT1-AAs were also increased after 4 weeks of initial immunization. Compared with control group, the HW/body weight (BW) and left ventricular weight/BW of immunized rats were increased significantly and cardiac function was enhanced compensatively. The cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes respond to AT1-AAs stimulation with increased 3H-leucine incorporation and cell surface area in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the AT1-AAs have an agonist effect similar to Ang II in hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro.
The suitability of cryptochrome for this purpose has been argued, in part, by analogy with DNA photolyase, although no effects of applied magnetic fields have yet been reported
for any member of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. Here, we demonstrate a magnetic-field effect on the photochemical yield of a flavin-tryptophan radical pair in Escherichia coli photolyase. This result provides a proof of principle that photolyases, and most likely by extension also cryptochromes, have the fundamental properties needed to form the basis of a magnetic compass.”
“Introduction: Microparticles are small vesicles shed by cells upon activation and during apoptosis which participate in physiologically relevant phenomena, including blood coagulation. Intracellular calcium mobilization is one of the mechanisms KU-57788 manufacturer of microparticle generation during cell activation. Because Barasertib chemical structure the renin-angiotensin system has been proposed as a link between hypertension and increased thrombotic risk, we investigated whether angiotensin II upregulates the generation of procoagulant microparticles by human mononuclear cells.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Human mononuclear cells were exposed to angiotensin II for 15 min. Intracellular calcium concentration was assessed by a Fluo 4 based kit. The supernatants
were analyzed for both microparticle content, with a commercially available kit based on phosphatidylserine analysis, and microparticle-associated tissue factor, with a one-stage clotting assay.\n\nResults: Intracellular calcium concentration is increased upon exposure of mononuclear cells to angiotensin ABT-263 cell line II. Incubation with angiotensin II stimulates microparticles
release; microparticle-associated tissue factor is also upregulated. The effect is inhibited by an angiotensin receptor type 2 antagonist (PD123319) and not by two angiotensin type 1 antagonists (Losartan and Olmesartan).\n\nConclusions: Angiotensin receptor 2-mediated upregulation of tissue factor-bearing, procoagulant microparticle generation represents a novel mechanism linking the renin-angiotensin system to thrombosis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Patients with acute brain injury but normal lung function are often intubated for airway protection, but extubation often fails. Currently, no clinical data exist that describe the events leading to extubation failure in this population. We examined the extubation failure rate, reintubation rate, and clinical characteristics of patients whose reason for intubation was a primary neurological injury. We then identified the clinical characteristics of those patients with primary brain injury who were reintubated.\n\nWe conducted a retrospective review of patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit of a tertiary care hospital from January 2002 to March 2007.
Depending on the mAb, changes were beneficial, neutral, or detrimental, as measured by the ability of the serum from immunized mice to inhibit bacterial adherence to human salivary agglutinin by a BIAcore surface plasmon resonance assay. The current study further defined changes
in the host response that result from immunization with IC containing beneficial mAbs, and evaluated mechanisms by which beneficial immunomodulation could occur in this system. Immunomodulatory effects varied depending upon genetic background, with differing results in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Desirable effects Adavosertib following IC immunization were observed in the absence of activating FcRs in BALB/c Fcer1g transgenic mice. mAb F(ab’)(2) mediated desirable changes similar to those observed using intact IgG. Sera from IC-immunized BALB/c mice that were better able to inhibit bacterial adherence demonstrated an increase in Abs able to compete with an adherence-inhibiting anti-P1 mAb, and binding of a beneficial immumomodulatory LY3039478 order mAb to S. mutans increased exposure of that epitope. Consistent with
a mechanism involving a mAb-mediated structural alteration of P1 on the cell surface, immunization with truncated P1 derivatives lacking segments that contribute to recognition by beneficial immunomodulatory mAbs resulted in an improvement in the ability of elicited serum Abs to inhibit bacterial adherence compared with immunization with the full-length protein. The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 183: 4628-4638.”
“Designing potent and subtype-selective ligands with therapeutic value requires knowledge about how endogenous ligands interact with their binding site. 4-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid (GABOB) is an endogenous ligand found in the central nervous system
in mammals. It is a metabolic product of GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Homology modeling of the GABA(C) rho(1) receptor revealed a potential H-bond interaction between the hydroxyl group of GABOB and threonine 244 (T244) located on loop C of the ligand binding site of the rho(1) subunit. Using site-directed buy Fedratinib mutagenesis, we examined the effect of mutating T244 on the efficacy and pharmacology of GABOB and various ligands. It was found that mutating T244 to amino acids that lacked a hydroxyl group in their side chains produced GABA insensitive receptors. Only by mutating rho(1)T244 to serine (rho(1)T244S) produced a GABA responsive receptor, albeit 39-fold less sensitive to GABA than rho(1)wild-type. We also observed changes in the activities of the GABA(C) receptor partial agonists, muscimol and imidazole-4-acetic acid (I4AA). At the concentrations we tested, the partial agonists antagonized GABA-induced currents at rho(1)T244S mutant receptors (Muscimol: rho(1)wild-type, EC50 = 1.4 mu M; rho(1)T244S, IC50 = 32.8 mu M. I4AA: rho(1)wild-type, EC50 = 8.6 mu M; rho(1)T244S, IC50 = 21.4 mu M). This indicates that T244 is predominantly involved in channel gating.
The shelf life of the resins did not prolong and lasted maximum for about 2 months which was ascribed to the presence of reasonable amount of carboxyl terminal groups at the ends of a minor portion of the glycolyzed products that could actively act to self-catalyze the polycondensation and crosslinking reactions
during storage leading eventually to vitrification of the resin and shortening of shelf life. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 2377-2383, 2012″
“The aim check details of this work was to compare the prevalence of cyclops lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using the single-bundle and remnant bundle preservation techniques.\n\nOne hundred consecutive patients, who had undergone postoperative see more MRI of the knee followed by arthroscopic ACLR with the remnant bundle preservation technique (R) between February 2007 and August 2010, were enrolled in this study. Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent ACLR using the single-bundle technique (S) were also included in this study as a control group. The MR findings were scored based on the presence of pre-ACL graft lesion as 0, 1, 2, or 3 on the sagittal images. The sixty-one specimens by second-look surgery (20 in S, 41 in R) were pathologically examined.\n\nThe numbers of patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 1, 18, 14, and 3 in TGF beta inhibitor group S and 4, 60, 29, and 7, in group
R, respectively. Of the 61 patients who underwent second-look surgery (20 in S, 41 in R), eight had a cyclops lesion (three in group
S and five in group R). The prevalence of cyclops lesion was not significantly different in group R and group S (p = 0.761).\n\nThe prevalence of a cyclops lesion was similar in both groups.”
“Typically, active muscle force is calculated by subtracting measured passive force from measured total force for corresponding whole muscle lengths (standard method). From a mechanical point of view, this requires a parallel elastic component (PEC) that is arranged in parallel to both the series elastic component (SEC) and the contractile component (CC). From a morphological point of view, however, the PEC should be rather in parallel to the CC, and both in series to the SEC (model [CC]). In this study, we investigated the differences in active muscle force estimated with these two different approaches and their impact on the interpretation of experiments. We measured passive forces without stimulation and total forces during supramaximal stimulation of six cat soleus muscles in end-held isometric contractions from lengths near active insufficiency to lengths close to inducing stretch damage. The active forces estimated with model [CC] reach about 10% higher maximum isometric forces and reveal about 10% longer optimal lengths of the CC compared to the standard method.
In contrast to the decline in CD4(+) T cell counts in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the decline in CD4(+) T cell counts in SMs naturally infected with SIV over a 5-year period was not predicted by either plasma viremia or levels of T-cell activation. Taken together, these results confirm that natural SIV infection is nonprogressive from a clinical, virological, and immunological point of view
and that stable levels of viremia associated with persistently low-level immune activation represent key differences from the natural course of HIV infection in humans.”
“This manuscript describes several behavioral and functional studies evaluating the capacity of ferret odors to elicit a number of acute and long-term responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute presentation elicits multiple responses, suggesting that ferret odor, likely from skin see more gland secretions, provides an anxiogenic-like Stimulus in this strain of rats. Compared to cat
odor, however, ferret odor did not produce rapid fear conditioning, a result perhaps attributable to methodological factors. Inactivation of the olfactory system and medial nucleus of the amygdala, combined with induction of the immediate-early gene c-fos, suggest the necessity of the accessory olfactory system in mediating the effects of ferret odor. Repeated exposures to ferret odor produce variable habituation of neuroendocrine and behavioral responses, perhaps Selleck SB203580 indicative of the lack of control
over the exact individual origin or concentration of ferret odor. Ferret odor induces rapid and long-term body weight regulation, thymic involution, adrenal hyperplasia find more and facilitation of the neuroendocrine response to additional challenges. It is argued that the use of such odors is exquisitely suited to investigate the brain regions coordinating anxiety-like responses and the long-term changes elicited by such stimuli. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Betulin and betulinic acid are pentacyclic triterpenes present in the bark of the birch tree and other vegetal sources. Quantitatively, in birch bark betulin is more significant than betulinic acid; therefore, birch can be a large and feasible source of raw material for betulin extraction. Betulin can be used as extracted or, after chemical modification, as a starting compound for its acid, betulinic acid, with both substances possessing various interesting pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study is to analyse the betulin and betulinic acid content of a birch tree bark extract, as well as its cytotoxic activity. The extraction was done using a Soxhlet extractor and chloroform/dichlormethane/methanol (1 : 1 : 1) as solvent.
In conclusion, we propose that VNUT-dependent ATP release pathway is associated with agonist-induced secretion process and downstream purinergic signalling in pancreatic ducts.”
“Introduction. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is a common chronic illness in childhood and is initially treated with corticosteroids. Recent reports indicate that the incidence of steroid resistance and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is on the rise. However, these reports involved different ethnic
populations. The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of INS in Iranian children in different periods. Materials and Methods. A retrospective chart review of children admitted with the diagnosis of new-onset INS was 5-Fluoracil performed. Patients were divided into two groups based on date of presentation periods of 1991 to 2002 and 2005 to 2012. Steroid resistance was defined as persistent proteinuria (2+ and more) within 8 weeks Adriamycin chemical structure of oral corticosteroid treatment. Results. A total of 238 children included in this study (119 in each group). There was an insignificant decrease in the frequency of steroid resistance, along with an insignificant change in histopathology towards focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Conclusions. These findings indicate that in contrast to other reports
of INS from various ethnic compositions, a tendency to steroid resistance is still arguable in the population of Iranian children.”
“In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the different roles of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in Chinese character form judgment between literate and illiterate subjects. Using event-related fMRI, 24 healthy right-handed Chinese subjects (12 literates and 12 illiterates) were asked to perform Chinese character and figure form judgment tasks. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) differences in pIFG were examined with general linear modeling (GLM). We found
differences in reaction times and accuracy between subjects as they performed these tasks. These behavioral differences reflect the different cognitive demands of character form judgment for literate and illiterate individuals. The results showed differences in the BOLD response patterns in the pIFG Pim inhibitor between the two discrimination tasks and the two subject groups. A comparison of the character and figure tasks showed that literate and illiterate subjects had similar BOLD responses in the inferior frontal gyrus. However, differences in behavioral performance suggest that the pIFG plays a different role in Chinese character form judgment for each subject group. In literate subjects, the left pIFG mediated access to phonology in achieving Chinese character form judgment, whereas the right pIFG participated in the processing of the orthography of Chinese characters. In illiterate subjects, the bilateral frontal gyrus participated in the visual-spatial processing of Chinese characters to achieve form judgment.
3 (range 1-6). Contralateral paratracheal lymph node metastases were present in 2% (1 out of 42). Sixty-seven percent with postcricoid SCC and 22% with pyriform sinus SCC developed clinical node-positive ipsilateral paratracheal lymph node metastases, whereas 11% with posterior pharyngeal wall SCC developed paratracheal metastases. There was a significant correlation between paratracheal lymph node metastasis and cervical metastasis (p = 0.005), and the
primary tumor site (postcricoid, 57.1%; pyriform sinus, 20.0%; posterior pharyngeal wall, 8.3%) (p = 0.039). Patients with no evidence of paratracheal lymph GDC 0032 order node metastasis may have a survival benefit (5-year disease-specific survival rate, 60 vs. 29%). However, this result did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.071). The patients with SCC of the postcricoid and/or pyriform sinus were at risk for ipsilateral paratracheal lymph node metastasis; furthermore, patients with paratracheal node metastasis had a high frequency of cervical metastasis and a poorer 4-Hydroxytamoxifen in vitro prognosis. Therefore, routine ipsilateral paratracheal node dissection is recommended during the surgical treatment of patients with SCC of the postcricoid and/or pyriform sinus with clinical node metastases.”
“The industrial production of wheat gluten (WG)-based biomaterials implies to improve their
actual mechanical properties as well as to reduce their water sensitivity. In this study,
the effect of Kraft lignin (KL) content on the processability and on the physical properties of WG materials was investigated. WG plasticized with glycerol Mdm2 inhibitor was blended with KL, and processed into materials by mixing and thermomolding. Materials were characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, tensile test, and water absorption measurements. The introduction of KL in plasticized WG resulted in an increase of the material glass transition temperature (Tg) and in a strong decrease of the rubbery storage modulus, which will favor industrial processing. The increase in Tg did not follow a simple mixing rule, demonstrating specific interaction between KL and WG. The resulting materials effectively showed improved properties when compared with pure WG-based materials: they exhibited higher tensile strength and lower water sensitivity in ambient conditions. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Data on the durability of remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after gastric bypass are limited. Our purpose was to identify the rate of long-term remission of T2DM and the factors associated with durable remission.\n\nMethods: A total of 177 patients with T2DM who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from 1993 to 2003 had 5-year follow-up data available. T2DM status was determined by interview and evaluation of the diabetic medications.