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WSW, Chen CT: ALA-PDT results in phenotypic changes and decreased cellular invasion in surviving cancer cells. Laser Surg Med 2009, 41:305–315.CrossRef 18. Tapajos ECC, Longo JP, Simioni AR, Lacava ZGM, Santos MFMA, Morais PC, Tedesco AC, Azevedo RB: In vitro photodynamic therapy on human oral keratinocytes using chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine. Oral Oncol 2008, 44:1073–1079.CrossRef 19. Xiao L, Gu L, Howell SB, Sailor MJ: Porous silicon nanoparticle photosensitizers for singlet oxygen and their phototoxicity against cancer cells. ACS Nano 2011, 5:3651–3659.CrossRef 20. Bhattacharyya S, Kudgus RA, Bhattacharya R, Mukherjee P: Inorganic nanoparticles in cancer therapy. Pharm Res-Dordr 2011, 28:237–259.CrossRef 21. Cathcart R, Schwiers E, Ames BN: Detection of picomole levels of hydroperoxides using a fluorescent dichlorofluorescein assay. Anal Biochem 1983, 134:111–116.CrossRef 22. Bueb JL, Gallois A, Schneider JC, Parini JP, Tschirhart E: A double-labeling fluorescent assay for concomitant measurements of [Ca 2+ ] i and O ·  2 production in human macrophages.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2010,308(1):84–93 PubMedCrossRef 34 Bayer EA

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1985,163(2):552–559.PubMed 35. Strobel HJ, Caldwell FC, Dawson KA: Carbohydrate Transport by the Anaerobic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum LQRI. Appl Environ Microbiol 1995,61(11):4012–4015.PubMed 36. Nataf Y, Yaron S, Stahl F, Lamed R, Bayer EA, Scheper TH, Sonenshein AL, Shoham Y: Cellodextrin and laminaribiose ABC transporters in Clostridium thermocellum . J Bacteriol 2009,191(1):203–209.PubMedCrossRef 37. Zhang YH, Lynd LR: Cellulose utilization by Clostridium thermocellum : bioenergetics and hydrolysis S3I-201 molecular weight product assimilation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005,102(20):7321–7325.PubMedCrossRef 38. Shi Z, Blaschek HP: Transcriptional analysis of Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and the hyper-butanol-producing mutant check details BA101 during the shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008,74(24):7709–7714.PubMedCrossRef

39. Alsaker KV, Papoutsakis ET: Transcriptional program of early sporulation and stationary-phase events in Clostridium acetobutylicum . J Bacteriol 2005,187(20):7103–7118.PubMedCrossRef 40. Bioenergy Research Centers: An Overview of the Science US Department of Energy 2009. DOE/SC-0116 41. Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B: The Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for Glycogenomics. Nucleic Acids Res 2009, (37 Database):D233–238. Authors’ contributions BR, SDB and JRM conceived and buy TSA HDAC designed the study; CKM carried out the growth studies; MR carried out the metabolite analysis; BR conducted the fermentations, carried

out the microarray studies, statistical data analysis and drafted the manuscript with input from JRM and SDB. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The basidiomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (formerly known as Phaffia rhodozyma) is an excellent astaxanthin-producing yeast and has been regarded as one of the most promising microorganisms for the commercial production of this carotenoid [1, 2]. Astaxanthin is a pigment that produces the characteristic coloration of some Adenosine birds, crustaceans and salmon. It has been used as a feed and food pigment in the aquaculture industry and has been evaluated as a pharmaceutical component because it may possess antioxidant activity [3, 4]. Due to its biotechnological significance, investigations have been performed to improve astaxanthin production by optimizing fermentation methodologies [5, 6] selecting for over-producing strains [7, 8], using chemical stimulants [9, 10], and employing genetic and metabolic engineering [11–13]. In X. dendrorhous, astaxanthin is produced via the mevalonate pathway, in which acetyl-CoA is a precursor to the formation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), the general precursor of all isoprenoids.

Many reports discuss the different pathways that allow microbes t

Many reports discuss the different pathways that allow microbes to adapt to antibiotics and achieve antimicrobial click here resistance (drug export, target JQEZ5 cell line modification, etc.) [1, 37–40], but how bacteria survive the initial antibiotic assault is less well understood. Additionally, it is not well

understood how bacteria respond to challenge with sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics. These concentrations are relevant to this study because they are likely to be encountered clinically, by bacteria within biofilm communities (where therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics cannot easily penetrate and high OMV concentrations exist [6]) and during improper antibiotic dosing regimens, as well as in antibiotic-contaminated niches in the general environment.

In this study we show that OMVs represent an exported form of an inducible innate defense to sub-lethal concentrations of AMPs for both non-pathogenic and pathogenic E. coli. The concept that OMVs enable antibiotic resistance has been presented for β-lactam drugs in several studies demonstrating OMVs can carry active β-lactamase [41, 42]. However, the idea that OMVs themselves can confer protection, without the need for an enzymatic resistance, has been less well studied, with only one report demonstrating that chlorhexadine can be adsorbed by OMVs in P. gingivalis [8]. The protection we observe is specific for outer membrane-targeting stressors, and we show that vesiculation GDC-0973 manufacturer is highly induced upon treatment with AMPs for which the OMVs are protective. Furthermore, as OMV protection can affect not only immediate survival, but also the acquisition of adaptive antibiotic resistance in a dose-dependent

manner, it is important to consider the role of vesiculation as a short-term, low dose, antimicrobial defense mechanism that can affect long-term survival. We observed that OMV-mediated defense against antimicrobials was limited to compounds that act at the outer membrane (AMPs). An association between OMVs and antibiotics was previously reported in a study Nabilone demonstrating the trafficking of gentamicin within P. aeruginosa OMVs, and in this case is was presumed that the gentamicin reached the lumen of the OMV [43]. In the case of either polymyxin B or colistin interactions, OMVs likely confer protection via an adsorption mechanism. There have been no enzymatic mechanisms of resistance discovered to date [17, 44], and thus it is highly unlikely that the OMVs convey enzymatic protection. Interactions between outer membrane LPS and AMPs have already been well documented [16], and our results further support this mechanism. Purified OMVs provided dose-dependent protection for polymyxin-treated cultures (Figure 1D, 3B), and the type of OMV LPS was paramount to OMV-mediated polymyxin protection, as OMVs from the polymyxin-resistant ETEC strain were not protective (Figure 3A).

Microaerobic, anaerobic, and ambient oxygen incubation conditions

Microaerobic, anaerobic, and ambient oxygen incubation conditions are abbreviated as “Micro”, “Ana” and “O2” respectively. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences are highlighted with * and indicate comparisons with the wildtype. The experiment was repeated three times independently and samples were

tested in at least three replicates per experiment. Data are presented as mean ± standard error. The observed impact of RPs on biofilm formation is likely mediated by multiple factors, including the metabolic and energy requirements that facilitate efficient growth and persistence in response to the THZ1 properties of a given niche. However, our results highlight the overall Selleckchem MGCD0103 importance of RPs in Smad inhibitor C. jejuni’s adaptations to different niches as well as their differential contribution to promote the pathogens survival and cognate persistence via biofilm formation in disparate environments. Since RPs contribute to C. jejuni survival phenotypes in a manner that was dependent on the incubation temperature and/or oxygen concentration, it was important

to investigate if the deletion of RPs will impact C. jejuni’s interactions with the cells of hosts that possess markedly different physiology and body temperatures. For this purpose, the interactions of the mutants with human intestinal cells (INT-407) and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells (PIC) were analyzed using the gentamicin Branched chain aminotransferase protection assay as described elsewhere [29, 30]. All cells were incubated in a tissue culture chamber (5% CO2) either at 37°C or 42°C corresponding to the hosts’ body temperatures. Our results show that ΔnrfA adhered to PIC in significantly higher numbers, while ΔfdhA and ΔhydB were significantly deficient in adherence as well as invasion of the chicken cell monolayers (Figure 3a). While assessing intracellular survival for the mutants in PIC, no CFUs were retrieved for any of the strains, including the wildtype.

This observation corroborated a previous study, which showed that during overnight incubation C. jejuni can escape the PIC monolayers due to the bacterium’s inherent mode of colonization of chicken intestinal epithelia [31]. Specifically, Van Deun et al. [31] showed that C. jejuni strains that invaded PIC were not able to proliferate in the intracellular milieu and rapidly exited the cells, supposedly to replicate in the intestinal mucus. It was also suggested that this mode of infection (i.e. short-term entry to the PIC) allows C. jejuni to escape mucosal clearance [31]. In comparison to the interaction with PIC, all mutants were defective to a varying degree, albeit if not always significantly, in adherence to INT-407 cells, while ΔmfrA, ΔfdhA and ΔhydB were also impaired in their invasion potential and ΔnrfA showed an increased ability for intracellular survival (Figure 3b, Table 1).

CrossRef 22 Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ: CLUSTAL W: impro

CrossRef 22. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ: CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequencing weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 1994, 22:4673–4680.PubMedCrossRef 23. Bryson K, McGuffin LJ, Marsden RL, Ward JJ, Sodhi JS, Jones DT: Protein structure prediction servers at University College London.

Nucleic Acids Res 2005,33(Web Server):W36-W38.PubMedCrossRef 24. Kelley LA, Sternberg MJE: Protein structure prediction on the web: a case study using the Phyre server. Nat Protoc 2009, 4:363–371.PubMedCrossRef 25. Zhang S, Flores-Cruz Z, Zhou L, Kang BH, Fleites L, Gooch MD, Wulff NA, Davis MJ, Duan Y, Gabriel BAY 11-7082 price DW: ‘ Ca . Liberibacter asiaticus’ carries an excision plasmid prophage and a click here chromosomally integrated prophage that becomes lytic in plant infections. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 2011, 24:458–468.PubMedCrossRef 26. Gmitter FG, Hu X: The possible role of Yunnan, China, in the origin of contemporary citrus species (Rutaceae). Econ Bot 1990, 44:267–277.CrossRef

27. CAL101 Ayalewa S, Blackwood ER, Confer AW: Sequence diversity of the immunogenic outer membrane lipoprotein PlpE from Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6. Vet Microbiol 2006, 114:260–268.CrossRef 28. Belland RJ, Morrison SG, Carlson JH, Hogan DM: Promoter strength influences phase variation of neisserial opa genes. Mol Microbiol 1997, 23:123–135.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions XW, CZ and JC participated in the design of the study. Cediranib (AZD2171) XW carried out laboratory work and sequence analysis and drafted the manuscript. CZ helped to draft the manuscript. XD maintained the strain collection and edited the manuscript. HS was responsible for strain collection and participated in PCR and sequence alignment. JC performed the statistical analysis, drafted and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus is coordinated by a network of two-component systems, global regulators and transcription factors, allowing optimal

adaptation of the pathogen to a changing environment and stress conditions encountered during the various stages of infection. A central regulatory element of virulence factor production in S. aureus is the accessory gene regulator agr, a two-component quorum sensor regulating gene expression in a growth-dependent manner. The main effector molecule of the agr operon is the regulatory RNAIII [1], which is responsible essentially for the upregulation of secreted proteins in the post-exponential phase. RNAIII transcription is enhanced by the staphylococcal accessory regulator SarA [2] and reduced by the alternative sigma factor σB in strain Newman [3, 4]. SarA is a winged helix transcription factor influencing many virulence genes [5, 6].

CrossRef 19 Zhou ZM,

Xu J, Liu XQ, Li XM, Li SY, Yang K,

CrossRef 19. Zhou ZM,

Xu J, Liu XQ, Li XM, Li SY, Yang K, Wang XF, Liu M, Zhang QQ: Non-spherical racemic polylactide microarchitectures this website formation via solvent evaporation method. Polymer 2009, 50:3841–3850.CrossRef 20. Speer DP, Chvapil M, Eskelson CD, Ulreich J: Biological effects of residual glutaraldehyde in glutaraldehyde-tanned collagen biomaterials. J Biomed Mater Res 1980, 14:753–764.CrossRef 21. Tamura T, Kita T, Nakagawa T, Endo T, Kim TS, Ishihara T, Mizushima Y, Higaki M, Ito J: Drug delivery to the cochlea using PLGA nanoparticles. BIBW2992 supplier Laryngoscope 2005, 115:2000–2005.CrossRef 22. Zhang Y, Zhang WK, Löbler M, Schmitz KP, Saulnier P, Perrier T, Pyykkö I, Zou J: Inner ear biocompatibility of lipid nanocapsules after round window membrane application. Int J Pharm 2011, 404:211–219.CrossRef 23. Zou J, Saulnier P, Perrier T, Zhang Y, Manninen T, Toppila E, Pyykkö I: Distribution of lipid nanocapsules in different cochlear cell populations after round window membrane permeation. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater 2008, 87B:10–18.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions

ZY, ZZ, GH, QX, and MY performed the experiments and analyzed the results. ZY and MY conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the results, and participated in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background l-Asparaginase II (ASNase II) is an enzyme that is widely used for the treatment of hematopoietic diseases such as BMS202 concentration acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The enzyme is able to destroy asparagine-dependent tumors by degrading circulating l-asparagine and destroying malignant cells [1, 2]. However, native ASNase II is associated with a high incidence of allergic reactions. Due to the formation of neutralizing antibodies, the half-life of circulating ASNase II (18 to 24 h) can be shortened to approximately Resminostat 2.5 h [3]. Moreover, it is susceptible to proteolytic degradation by the proteases of the host organism. Much effort has been devoted to develop methods to avoid such side effects as well as to increase its in vivo half-life.

For example, ASNase II has been chemically modified by polyethyleneglycol [4], poly-(d,l-alanine) [5], and dextran [6]. In the recent years, nanotechnology has shown a significant promise in the preparation of immobilized enzymes. Immobilization of enzymes onto biopolymer nanoparticles may result in some benefits, such as improving their stability to pH and temperature, as well as resistance to proteases and other denaturing compounds. Candidate carrier biopolymers should exhibit chemical and physical stability, biological compatibility, high purity, homogeneous molecular weight (MW) distribution, and adequate functional groups for binding to biomolecules with high loading capacity. They exhibit several drug loading mechanisms including electrostatic attractions, hydrophobic interactions, and covalent binding.

J Biol Chem 2004, 279:9064–9071 PubMedCrossRef 32 Mellies JL, Ha

J Biol Chem 2004, 279:9064–9071.PubMedCrossRef 32. Mellies JL, Haack KR, Galligan DC: SOS regulation of the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . J Bacteriol 2007, 189:2863–2872.PubMedCrossRef 33. Justice SS, Hung C, Theriot JA, Fletcher

DA, Anderson GG, Footer MJ, Hultgren SJ: Differentiation and developmental pathways of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urinary tract pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004, 101:1333–1338.PubMedCrossRef 34. Dörr T, Lewis K, Vulić M: SOS response induces persistence to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli . PLoS Genetics 2009, 5:1–9.CrossRef 35. Keseler IM, Bonavides-Martinez C, Collado-Vides J, Gama-Castro S, Gunsalus RP, Belinostat cost Johnson DA, Krummenacker M, Nolan LM, Paley S, Paulsen IT, et al.: EcoCyc: a comprehensive view of Escherichia coli biology. Nucleic Acids Semaxanib Res 2009, 37:D464–470.PubMedCrossRef 36. Salles B, Weisemann JM, Weinstock GM: Temporal control of colicin E1 induction.

J Bacteriol 1987, 169:5028–5034.PubMed Mizoribine solubility dmso 37. Salles B, Weinstock GM: Interaction of the CRP-cAMP complex with the cea regulatory region. Mol Gen Genet 1989, 215:537–542.PubMedCrossRef 38. Chant EL, Summers DK: Indole signaling contributes to the stable maintenance of Escherichia coli multicopy plasmids. Mol Microbiol 2007, 63:35–43.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions SK performed all experiments. ZP contributed to analysis of the results. OG and DŽB participated in the design of the experiments and SK, OG and DŽB in preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria, commonly known as rhizobia, employ a variety of strategies which allow them to exist in the soil and adapt to various environmental conditions

prior to infecting leguminous plant hosts. Rhizobial cell surface components, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play an important role in determining the symbiotic competence of rhizobia, root tissue invasion and induction of nitrogen-fixing nodules on host plants forming indeterminate-type nodules, such as Pisum, Trifolium, Vicia, and Medicago spp. [1–4]. Acidic EPSs secreted in large amounts by rhizobia Edoxaban are species-specific compounds consisting of common sugars substituted with non-carbohydrate residues [1, 4–6]. EPS of Rhizobium leguminosarum is a heteropolymer consisting of octasaccharide subunits composed of five glucose residues, one galactose, and two glucuronic acid residues, additionally decorated with acetyl, pyruvyl, and 3-hydroxybutyryl groups [7, 8]. EPS-deficient mutants or those with an altered LPS structure are impaired in nodule cell invasion and nitrogen fixation [1, 6, 9–11]. Biosynthesis of EPS in R. leguminosarum is a multi-step process requiring the expression of several pss genes, located in the major EPS cluster on the chromosome [12, 13].

In general, one will only find those SNPs that exist among the ge

In general, one will only find those SNPs that exist among the genomic samples used in the comparisons and novel SNPs will remain undiscovered [21]. This discovery bias can strongly affect taxonomic interpretation of results [22, 23].

Although discovery bias is often less consequential for genotyping efforts, the effects of our choice of strains for SNP discovery are clearly apparent in our phylogenetic tree. The discovery strains are distinguished by their positions at terminal branches in the phylogeny. There is greater diversity observed in B. abortus simply because two strains were part of the #EVP4593 cell line randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# discovery panel. Furthermore, although isolates on a branch will be grouped by the SNPs they share (or do not share), additional structure exists in the “true” phylogeny that is not apparent in the

genotype tree. Branch lengths are also highly affected by the SNP discovery process. Species that are basal within this phylogeny, such as B. ceti B. pinnipedialis B. ovis, and B. neotomae have short branch lengths merely because these genomes were not part of SNP discovery. It must also be noted that B. suis biovar 5 is part of this basal group. SNPs that should group it with the rest of the B. suis clade were not present in our MIP assay, which is not surprising since this branch is extremely short, even with whole genome analysis [JTF unpubl. data, [24]. We did not observe differentiation of these and the other Brucella species, nor this website did we expect it because genomes from these groups were not a part of SNP discovery. Whole genome resequencing at the Broad Institute of MIT/Harvard recently generated genomes for over 100 additional Brucella strains and these genomes should provide a broad basis for future genotyping efforts, with canonical SNPs developed for each of the important isolates and clades. Future genotyping

efforts should include SNPs from all of the recognized species and biovars. Comparative work using some of these genomes has already been fruitful, demonstrating the emergence of Silibinin the marine Brucella from within the terrestrial Brucella and showing a methodology for whole genome analysis [24]. A trade-off exists in current genotyping efforts between throughput and genomic sampling. Does one aim for a maximum amount of potentially informative loci through approaches such as whole genome sequencing but having to sacrifice the number of isolates that can be evaluated? Or does one aim for more complete sampling of large numbers of isolates but with a limited set of loci using individual SNP assays such as CUMA? Of course the ultimate answer depends on your research interest or clinical application as well as the amount of resources at hand. MIP assays provide phylogenetic resolution for an intermediate number of samples and intermediate number of SNPs.

Jama 305(5):487–494 43 Verma N, Swain SM: Bevacizumab and heart

Jama 305(5):487–494. 43. Verma N, Swain SM: Bevacizumab and heart failure risk in patients with breast cancer: a thorn in the side? J Clin Oncol 29(6):603–606. 44. Hayes DF: Bevacizumab treatment for solid tumors: boon or bust? Jama

305(5):506–508. Competing interests The GW786034 clinical trial Authors declare that they have no competing interests. selleck chemical Authors’ contributions FCu, EB, VV, PC, MM and SG conceived the analysis, and supervised the calculations; FCu, EB, IS, and DG performed the calculations in a blinded fashion; VV, FB, AF, PC, MM, CN, MR, PP, and GF participated in the trials recruitment and selection process; FCu, EB, VV, FP, AF and MM drafted and revised the manuscript; EB, PC, MM, MA, DG and FC did coordinate the overall study process

and did provide the funding. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Correction After publication of this work [1], we noted that we inadvertently made an error order of author affiliations. The corrected order of author affiliations was listed as above. References 1. Guo-Qing P, Yuan Y, Cai-Gao Z, Hongling Y, Gonghua H, Yan T: A study of association between expression of hOGG1, VDAC1, HK-2 and cervical carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2010,29(1):129.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests Dr Guo-qing P and Yan T made main contribution for this works, and have consulted the other authors in competing interests. They declare CDK inhibitor no conflicts of interest. Authors’ contributions PGQ and TY designed the study and collected the cervical biopsy samples, YY wrote the main manuscript, HGH performed data analysis, YHL accomplished pathological diagnosis, ZCG looked over the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Irradiation techniques with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) allow doses to be delivered to the target

with a high conformation of prescribed isodose, sparing Organs at Risk (OARs), compared to conventional 3D-CRT techniques. Another advantage of the IMRT technique is the possibility to achieve the so-called Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB), which provides different levels of therapeutic doses to different target volumes during the same treatment session, once the Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) fraction number has been set [1–5]. Historically, to obtain the desired tumor control, the doses were determined using a conventional fractionation that ranged between 50 to 70 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Whereas, in order to obtain Tumor Control Probability (TCP), equivalent to that of a conventional fractionation, the total dose simultaneously delivered to the targets have to be determined according to the Linear Quadratic Model (LQM) to be used with the SIB technique [6]. Thus, the dose per fraction to PTVs and/or boost may differ by 2 Gy per fraction.

Consistent with in situ findings, NGF increased by two-fold in th

Consistent with in situ findings, NGF increased by two-fold in the hepatic blood from metastasis-bearing mice. NGF also significantly increased in the supernatant of both HSC given tumor cell-conditioned medium(CM),and hepatocytes given tumor-activated HSC-CM, STA-9090 but not tumor cell-CM. Recombinant NGF dose-dependently increased chemotactic migration, but not proliferation and adhesion of neurotrophin receptor-expressing tumor cells in vitro.

HSC migration-stimulating activity of VEGF and tumor-activated hepatocytes was also NGF-mediated as shown with anti-NGF antibodies. Our results demonstrate that hepatocyte- and HSC-derived myofibroblasts secrete NGF in the hepatic metastasis microenvironment of colorectal carcinoma and suggest that NGF contributes to hepatic metastasis development through the specific Belinostat datasheet activation of tumor and stromal cell migration. Poster No. 124 Transcript Profiling for Epithelial – Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Search for EMT Signature and Validation on Clinical

Samples An De Bondt2, Thierry Grand-Perret 1 , Janine Arts1, Tamara Geerts1, Lutgart Janssen1, An Boeckx1, Nele Vloemans1, Ilse Van den Epigenetics Compound Library Wyngaert2, Willem Talloen3, Hinrich Göhlmann2, Pieter J. Peeters2 1 Oncology Discovery, Ortho Biotech Research & Development, a division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Antwerpen, Belgium, 2 Functional Genomics and Molecular Profiling, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, a Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Antwerpen, Belgium, 3 Nonclinical Biostatistics, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, a Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse,

Antwerpen, Belgium Background: Patient stratification becomes Resminostat increasingly important for metastatic cancer treatment. Initiation of metastasis involves invasion and increased cell motility, which has many similarities to Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT), including a loss of cell-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin down-regulation. Aim: The aim of this study is to identify a set of genes that could be a biomarker for metastatic risk to be used on tumor biopsies. More specifically, a gene expression signature discriminating epithelial from mesenchymal cell phenotypes. Methods: First we have focused on known genes related to EMT based on literature. Second, we investigated whether we could identify another unbiased set of genes, solely based on expression data of cell lines, which can discriminate epithelial from mesenchymal cells. A refined principle component analysis, based on this subset of genes, identifies the weight of each gene in this signature. Taking these weights together with their expression levels make up a so-called composite gene expression measure. This has been applied to data from clinical samples.