Fewer than half of the haplotypes (25) occurred in more than one

Fewer than half of the haplotypes (25) occurred in more than one individual (Table S1, Fig. 3). The most common haplotype (h1) was within the restricted lineage and occurred in 31 individuals. Thirteen haplotypes belong in the restricted lineage (95 individuals) and 34 haplotypes in the widespread lineage (81 individuals including one from New Caledonia). Trees generated by BEAST provided posterior support probabilities of 1 for the widespread lineage and 0.9988 for the restricted one (data not shown). Figure 1

shows the numbers of representatives of each lineage from each sampled Ivacaftor mw locality in Australia and Table S1 gives details on distribution of each haplotype. The only sequences from Australian waters that did not belong to the widespread or restricted lineages were from two dugongs from Ashmore Reef (Fig. 1, 3), which lies on the edge of the Australian continental shelf almost BAY 80-6946 mw 400 km off Western Australia and ~120 km from Timor from which it is separated

by a deepwater trench. A third dugong from Ashmore Reef carried a sequence representative of the widespread lineage. The Australian lineages were represented outside Australia by a single sequence (h44, widespread lineage) from New Caledonia, about 1,500 km east of the closest part of Queensland. All remaining sequences from outside Australia form a loose cluster in Figure 3, but given the diversity they exhibit and the very limited sampling, this cluster may not represent a single lineage (hence we did not present neutrality indices and some other analyses for this lineage alone). Overall, dugongs exhibit high haplotypic diversity (0.946) and rather low nucleotide diversity (0.026) (Table 2). The restricted lineage, despite including selleck a larger number of samples, displays much lower haplotypic diversity and nucleotide diversity than the widespread lineage (Table 2). When the data were explored for evidence of population growth, strikingly different results

were obtained for each lineage. Runs in Beast rejected the hypothesis of constant population size for the widespread lineage but not for the restricted one. The neutrality indices (Fu’s FS and R2; Table 2) did not support population growth for the restricted lineage. However, the highly significant value for Fu’s FS statistic indicates that the widespread lineage has experienced growth. Values for the R2 statistic did not reject the null hypothesis of constant population size in either lineage and was our only evidence against growth in the widespread lineage. The Bayesian skyline plot (Fig. 4a) suggests recent expansion for the widespread lineage after a period of near-stasis. Both median and mean values for effective population size (NE(FEMALE)) through time are shown in Figure 4a, b because they differ from one another more than we had expected and it is not clear which should be preferred.

All analyses were conducted using SAS 92 (SAS Institute, Inc, C

All analyses were conducted using SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) and Stata 11 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX). The NASH CRN studies were designed by subcommittees of the NASH CRN Steering Committee, MAPK Inhibitor Library cell assay the latter composed of principal investigators from each clinical site, the two cochairs of the Pathology Committee, the principal investigator from the Data Coordinating Center, and the NIDDK scientific officer. [All investigators in the NASH CRN and their positions and locations are listed in the appendix.] After approval by the Steering Committee, studies were approved by the respective institutional review boards at

all involved sites. All enrolled patients gave written informed consent before data collection with special consent for genetic testing. The clinical protocols, consent forms, and manual of operations were also reviewed and approved by a Data Safety Monitoring Board established by the NIDDK specifically for the NASH CRN. All studies were in compliance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines for human research quality standards. Investigators, coordinators, and ancillary staff involved in data collection and entry were click here trained and certified for quality assurance. In addition, monthly data audits were performed by comparing entered data with source documents by the Data Coordinating Center throughout the NASH CRN

studies. A total of 1266 adults were enrolled into the NASH CRN Database (n = 1019) or PIVENS trial (n = 247) between October 2004 and February 2008. Of these, 698 had a liver biopsy obtained within 6 months of clinical data collection (contemporaneous biopsy group), 403 had a biopsy more than 6 months before study data was collected, and 165 did not have biopsy data available. Of those classified as having contemporaneous liver biopsies, 53% had biopsies within 1 week of having blood tests, 60% within 4 weeks, 81% within 3 months, and the remaining 19% between 3 and 6 months. For non-PIVENS patients with more

than one biopsy, only the last biopsy was used for analysis. For PIVENS patients, the entry biopsy and contemporaneous laboratory and clinical data obtained within 6 months of the biopsy were used. The characteristics, laboratory test results, and biopsy features selleckchem of the NASH CRN adult patients are given in Table 1. Additional data describing this cohort and the correlations between clinical data and histological changes can be found online in supporting Tables 1 through 6. Overall, the median age was 50 years, 82% of patients were white, and 12% were Hispanic. The median BMI was 33 kg/m2 and median waist circumference was 108 cm; 49% had hypertension and 31% had type 2 diabetes. Combining these features, 61% met the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria13 for the metabolic syndrome.

4%, NPV 767%) Conclusion: Pegylated interferonα-2a induces high

4%, NPV 76.7%). Conclusion: Pegylated interferonα-2a induces high HBsAg loss rate in NA-experienced CHB

patients with or without virological response, however, patients with virological response and http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PF-2341066.html low qHBsAg level (<1500IU/ml) achieves higher HBsAg loss. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Yao Xie, Ming-hui Li, Yao Lu, Guo-hua Qiu, Lu Zhang, Li-wei Zhuang, Jun Cheng Background/Aims: Tenofovir DF (TDF) represents a very efficient and safe therapy option in patients with Chronic Hepatitis B, as shown in pivotal trials over 6 years. A correlation between HBV-DNA levels and long term clinical outcomes has been reported. However, the impact of therapeutic adherence on the viral load (VL) is still poorly documented in field practice. The aim of this study is to assess behavioral

determinants of biological outcome within a cohort of selleck chemicals HBV-patients treated with TDF (VIREAL Study) in real life from France. Methods: 441 CHB patients (mean age 45.3 (SD 14.3), 70.9% males, 59.1% treatment-experienced) were invited to fill in a short self-reported adherence questionnaire at 3, 6 and 12-month. Their practitioners were also invited on the same visits to answer a short questionnaire describing patients’ knowledge about their disease, motivation, reluctance to be treated, mood, and therapeutic partnership with the practitioner. The questionnaire used three ratings to

report treatment adherence: good adherence, minor problems related to adherence and poor adherence. VL was measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 month. Results: HBV-DNA was lower than 69IU/mL at week 48 in 91 % of patients. Overall, good adherence was observed in 56%, minor adherence selleck screening library problems in 39% and poor adherence in 5%. Similar to registration trials for TDF, VL significantly decreased from baseline to 12 months, with a final VL positively correlated with baseline VL. After adjusting for baseline VL, higher final VL was found in patients who reported having skipped their last medication at the 3-month visit (p=0.001) or at the 12-month visit (p=0.017), patients who reported having been out of drugs at the 12-month visit (p=0.001), patients considered by their practitioner as insufficiently informed about their disease at the 3-month (p=0.02) or 12-month visits (p=0.008) or reluctant to have treatment at the 12-month visit (p=0.003). Conclusions: A simple questionnaire to CHB patients and/or to their practitioners can provide useful information about risk factors for lower efficacy of antiviral treatment in CHB. These indicators could help practitioners to better motivate and manage these patients and prevent disappointing biological results, with their at risk long term consequences. Disclosures: Jean-Pierre H.

[19, 20] On the other hand, approximately 20–30% of general popul

[19, 20] On the other hand, approximately 20–30% of general population has been reported to be positive for ANA.[21, 22] In this study, four of seven type 1 AIH patients histologically diagnosed with acute hepatitis showed serum ANA titers of 1:40 or less, and three of these four patients were positive for serum anti-PD-1 antibodies. And, of six patients showing serum IgG levels below 2 g/dL and serum ANA titers of 1:40 or less, three find more were positive for serum anti-PD-1 antibodies. Furthermore, 27 of 40 patients whose serum titers of

either ANA or ASMA were 1:80 or higher showed positivity for serum anti-PD-1 antibodies, and 6 of 12 patients whose serum titers of both ANA and ASMA were 1:40

or less showed positivity for serum anti-PD-1 antibodies. So, we speculate that serum anti-PD-1 antibodies may be useful for the diagnosis of type 1 AIH as an auxiliary diagnostic marker. This study did not show functional effect of serum anti-PD-1 antibodies on lymphocytes Acalabrutinib research buy although several studies have shown the following findings in type 1 AIH patients: (i) hyperresponsiveness of CD8+ T cells to antigen;[23] (ii) apoptosis-resistance in CD4+ CD25– T cells and CD8+ T cells;[24] (iii) reduced expression of FOXP3 in CD4+ CD25+ T cells;[24, 25] (iv) decreased number of CD4+ CD25+ T cells;[23, 25] and (v) reduced ability of CD4+ CD25+ T cells to regulate CD8+ T cells proliferation.[23] The similar phenomena are shown to be developed by using anti-PD-1 antibody. Anti-PD-1 antibody accelerates the proliferation of CD8+ T cells and enhances the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) from CD8+ T cells.[26] Furthermore, anti-PD-1 antibodies decrease the number and protective effect of CD4+ CD25+ T cells.[27-29] In this study, titers of serum anti-PD-1 antibodies were correlated with serum levels of bilirubin and transaminase in type 1 AIH patients. Thus, we speculate that anti-PD-1 antibodies may be associated with the pathogenesis of type 1 AIH. In summary,

click here this study suggests that anti-PD-1 antibodies will exist in sera of some type 1 AIH patients, and that serum anti-PD-1 antibodies may be useful for the discrimination of type 1 AIH from DILI, AVH, and PSC as an auxiliary diagnostic marker. Furthermore, anti-PD-1 antibodies may be associated with clinical features of type 1 AIH. In order to confirm these findings, further studies are required. The role of anti-PD-1 antibodies in the pathogenesis of type 1 AIH may be worth investigating. “
“Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare subtype of liver cancer occurring mostly in children and young adults. We have shown that FLC comprises two separate entities: pure (p-FLC) and mixed-FLC (m-FLC), differing in clinical presentation and course.

We hypothesized that SHP activation is necessary for the bile aci

We hypothesized that SHP activation is necessary for the bile acid induced improvement of hepatic steatosis after VSG. Methods: To induce obesity adult male SHP knockout (SHP KO)mice and their wild type littermates were fed a high saturated fat diet (HFD, 60kcal%) for 8 weeks. Mice were randomized into four groups (n=4-8) viz.; VSG surgery Gefitinib cost SHP KO (SHP KO VSG), VSG wild type (WT VSG), Sham surgery SHP KO (SHP KO Sham), Sham wild type (WT Sham). Mice were on liquid diet for three days post-surgery and then back on the HFD. Animals were sacrificed 8 weeks post-surgery. Results: SHP

KO mice were obese (>30g) but had lower body weight compared to their wild type littermates before surgery (p<0.001). Both KO and WT VSG mice lost Pictilisib research buy more body weight and had lower body

weight compared to their respective Sham groups at 8 weeks post-surgery (p<0.001). Serum bile acid levels were not different between groups pre-surgery but were higher in both WT and SHP KO VSG groups compared to the Sham operated mice at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks postsurgery (fasting) and 8 weeks (post-prandial; p<0.05). As seen before in WT mice, Cyp7a1 (bile acid synthesis) gene expression in SHP KO VSG mice was suppressed compared to SHP KO Sham mice (p<0.001). Liver triglyceride levels were lower in WT VSG group compared to WT Sham (p<0.001) but no difference was observed between SHP KO VSG and SHP KO Sham groups. Further histological steatosis scores

were also not different between SHP KO VSG and SHP KO Sham mice. Plasma ALT levels were lower in WT VSG mice compared to WT Sham (54.86±4.9 U/L vs. 113.7±17.5 see more WT Sham; p<0.05) while no difference was observed between SHP KO VSG and SHP KO Sham mice (102.6±2.0 and 99.60±10.2). Further the NAFLD Activity Score was higher in SHP KO mice that underwent VSG compared to Sham operated SHP KO mice (p<0.05). Conclusions: SHP KO and WT mice both lost more body weight and had increased serum total bile acid levels after VSG surgery. Despite weight loss and bile acid synthesis gene suppression, SHP KO VSG mice had no reduction in hepatic steatosis, triglyceride accumulation or plasma ALT levels. We conclude that having an intact SHP transcription factor is necessary for the improvement in NASH seen after VSG surgery in obese mice though the suppression of bile acid synthesis seen in SHP KO VSG mice maybe SHP independent. Disclosures: Randy J.

7A) On the contrary, we found that SVIGF-I-treated rats exhibite

7A). On the contrary, we found that SVIGF-I-treated rats exhibited significant up-regulation of HNF4α, a hepatocyte nuclear factor that stimulates the expression of genes characterizing the mature hepatocyte phenotype (Fig. 7B).20 It seems possible that this effect

might contribute to the improvement of liver function observed in IGF-I-treated cirrhotic rats. We also assessed the safety of SVIGF-I in normal rats. To this aim, control healthy rats, rats C59 wnt chemical structure injected with SVIGF-I or with SVLuc were sacrificed 8 weeks after vector administration. IGF-I, IGFBP3, and HGF were up-regulated in the liver of rats given SVIGF-I but histopathological analysis of several organs and evaluation of different serum biochemical parameters showed no significant differences between the groups (Supporting Fig. 4 and data not shown). To evaluate the robustness of IGF-I therapy we tested SVIGF-I in a different model of liver cirrhosis more difficult to revert. To this aim, selleck inhibitor we administered saline or recombinant SV40 vectors encoding SVLuc or IGF-I (SVIGF-I) to rats in which cirrhosis had been previously induced by TAA administration for 7 weeks. All animals and healthy controls were evaluated 8 weeks after vector administration. Similar to what was observed in the

CCl4 model, SVIGF-I vector was able to express functional IGF-I protein in the TAA cirrhotic liver. Thus, both IGF-I and IGF-IBP3 mRNAs were increased in IGF-I-treated animals compared to controls (Fig. 8A). This was accompanied by improved liver biochemistry, being the levels click here of serum ALP and serum bilirubin significantly lower than in cirrhotic controls and similar to values found in healthy animals (Fig. 8B). Also, the liver of IGF-I-treated animals exhibited less nodularity macroscopically (data not shown) and on histological

examination showed a marked decrease of liver fibrosis and less ductular proliferation in portal tracts compared to cirrhotic controls (Fig. 8C,D). Reduced fibrosis correlated with a strong decrease of activated HSCs as detected by immunohistochemistry and quantification of αSMA mRNA (Fig. 8C,E). In parallel to findings in the CCl4 model, rats with TAA-induced cirrhosis treated with SVIGF-I showed in liver tissue up-regulation of HGF accompanied by increased expression of MMPs and decreased levels of TIMP-1 (Fig. 8A, Supporting Fig. 5). Because liver transplantation can be offered to only a limited number of cirrhotic patients, alternative therapies for advanced liver cirrhosis are urgently needed. In keeping with the fact that IGF-I deficiency is a key feature of liver cirrhosis, a previous work by our group showed that daily administration of recombinant IGF-I to cirrhotic patients induces a significant amelioration of liver function.4 However, the amount of recombinant protein needed to accomplish hormone replacement therapy is high and a prolonged treatment would be exceedingly costly.

1) Beadarray chips at the Institute for Molecular Bioscience Micr

1) Beadarray chips at the Institute for Molecular Bioscience Microarray Facility (Brisbane, Australia). Hepatic gene expression was measured in mice independent of those used for the microarray experiments. RNA treated with deoxyribonuclease I was reverse transcribed using Superscript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) and gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a Rotor-Gene (Qiagen, Australia) PCR cycler. Aliquots of complementary DNA from each sample were pooled and used to generate standard curves by serial dilution. Reactions were prepared using FastStart SYBR Green master mix (Roche Applied Science, Sydney, Australia).

Transcripts were quantified by Estrogen antagonist the method of Pfaffl25 using the mean of the iron-deficient samples as the calibrator and β-actin as the reference gene. Primer sequences

are listed in Supporting Table 1. Liver nonheme iron was measured by the method of Kaldor26 and plasma iron by the method of Fielding.27 Liver cholesterol was extracted FK506 order using chloroform:methanol (2:1) as described.28 Following evaporation to dryness under nitrogen, lipids were resuspended in isopropanol. Liver and plasma total cholesterol were measured enzymatically using a Cobas Mini Random Analyzer (Roche Products Pty., Ltd., Basel, Switzerland). Microarray data were initially examined using Illumina BeadStudio version 3.0 (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and were exported to Lumi version find more 1.1 for Bioconductor 2.4.29, 30 Background correction, variance stabilization, normalization, and quality control were performed as described in the standard methods for the Lumi package. Isotonic regression can provide a better fit test for determining trends across experimental groups compared with traditional linear regression techniques. A modified version of the isotonic regression function from the statistical package R, version 2.9,31 was used to determine whether an increasing or decreasing trend in gene expression level

for each probeset was present across the iron-deficient, normal, and iron-loaded groups.32, 33 Gene expression data were compared with hepatic nonheme iron using linear regression analysis on log-transformed data, and pairwise comparisons were performed using the Student unpaired, two-tailed t test. Statistical significance was taken at the nominal 5% level. Other statistical tests and data management were conducted using R. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) is an analytical method used to identify differences between groups of genes with related biological function.34 We ranked the isotonic regressions by their R2 correlations and used these as input for a preranked GSEA analysis in the GSEA version 2.0 software package.34 Enrichment analysis was performed using the GSEA C2 Molecular Signatures Database, which contains more than 1000 pathways and ontologies curated from online pathway databases and available biomedical literature (www.broadinstitute.

Results: Compared with the baseline (W0), at the end of the eight

Results: Compared with the baseline (W0), at the end of the eighth week (W8) two group without anxiety and depression, anxiety and depression in patients with mild to moderate SAS, SDS score decreased significantly, the difference MLN0128 was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Houever, severe anxiety and depression in patients with SAS, SDS score were not significantly decreased, no significant differences (P < 0.05). After the treatment, the total curative effect of patients with mild to moderate anxiety and depression in the study group were higher than those in the control group (97.32% VS 17.98%, P < 0.001). However,

no statistical significance in the two group without anxiety and depression, severe anxiety and severe depression patients with

different total curative effect (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Low dose of Flupentixol and melitracen can effectively alleviate the symptoms of FD patients, significantly improve the without anxiety and depression, mild to moderate anxiety and depression in patients with psychological score. Key Word(s): 1. functional dyspepsia; 2. deanxit; 3. anxiety; 4. depression; Presenting Author: XUE HAN Additional Authors: KUI JIANG, BANGMAO WANG, LU ZHOU, XIN CHEN, SHU LI Corresponding HM781-36B manufacturer Author: KUI JIANG Affiliations: General Hospital of Tianjin medical university Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of rebamipide in chronic gastritis patients. Methods: 180 patients with chronic gastritis were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group were treated with

rebamipide 0.1 g tid and optimization of life style, and the control group were only optimized their life style for 26 weeks. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients to evaluate the severity of gastritis by modified Lanza score (MLS) and the histology by the updated Sydney system before and after treatment. click here Results: compare experimental group and control group in the differences of clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions and inflammation grade scores between pre-treatment and post-treatment respectively (2.62 ± 1.86 vs. 1.55 ± 1.61, 0.57 ± 1.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.90, 0.43 ± 0.96 vs. 0.01 ± 0.72), and the differences have statistical significance (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Rebamipide can improve clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, and pathologic grade (inflammation) of chronic gastritis safely, and hence it is and worthy of applying in clinical practice. Key Word(s): 1. Rebamipide; 2. chronic gastritis; 3. clinical effect; 4.

alJour Nutr Bioch 2013) The aim of the present study was to u

alJour. Nutr. Bioch. 2013). The aim of the present study was to understand the effects of increased oxidative stress on AMPK signaling and activity in vitro as well as in a murine model of chronic ethanol consumption. Methods: Using recombinant protein, an in vitro human hepatocyte HepaRG cell culture system

or a murine model of ALD, the direct effects of lipid peroxidation were examined with respect to AMPK phosphorylation, carbonyla-tion, enzymatic activity and BMS-777607 mouse phosphorylation of ACC. Results: In HepaRG cells, incubation with increasing concentrations of 4-HNE resulted in decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Pretreatment of 4-HNE inhibited both hydrogen peroxide and adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMPK and subsequent phosphorylation of ACC. Using biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that exposure of HepaRG cells to 4-HNE resulted in carbonylation of AMPKα/β which was not observed

in untreated control cells. Based on this data, mass spectral analysis of 4-HNE treated selleck compound recombinant AMPKα identified Michael addition adducts of 4-HNE on Cys130, Cys174, Cys227 and Cys309. Global computational based molecular modeling analysis of AMPK following 4-HNE modification revealed no significant changes in secondary or tertiary structure. Molecular modeling analysis of 4-HNE adducted to Cys174 AMPKα

suggest inhibition of AMPK activity by steric hindrance of the active site pocket. Using a murine model of alcoholic liver disease, chronic ethanol consumption resulted in an increase in carbonylated AMPKα despite increased phosphorylation of Thr172AMPK. There was no significant change in phosphorylation of ACC. Conclusions: Combined these data demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is a direct target of reactive aldehyde during conditions see more of increased oxidative stress in the liver. The inhibition of AMPK by reactive aldehydes provides a novel mechanism for defective AMPK signaling and β-oxidation in ALD. This work was funded by NIH 5F32 AA018613-03 (C.T.S.) and 5R37 AA009300-16 (D.R.P.). Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Colin T. Shearn, David J. Orlicky, Dennis R. Petersen Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is the most severe form of alcoholic liver disease and is one of the most deadly conditions in hepa-tology. There is a clear need to identify non-invasive biomarkers and molecular drivers in order to develop novel targeted therapies. We recently showed that progenitor cell expansion is a hallmark of severe AH and correlates with disease severity. Here, we performed a translational study including human and experimental data using a systems biology approach to identify new molecular biomarkers of AH.

Their proposed approach is thus unduly sensitive to small relativ

Their proposed approach is thus unduly sensitive to small relative errors for large mammals;

as the largest (the elephant) is comparatively light for its large-bone circumference, the resulting model grossly overestimates the body mass of small mammals and is likely to substantially underestimate the body mass of dinosaurs. It is also important to note, however, that the error bars for the conventional model already indicate substantial uncertainty in body mass, such that for example, the body mass of Apatosaurus louisae may be as high as 63 metric tonnes, or as low as 23 metric tonnes, with a modal value of 38 metric tonnes. “
“A MS-275 mouse naturally functioning riparian zone is essential for the ecological health of a river, filtering pollutants, supplying organic matter and providing a structural habitat for wildlife. Most lowland rivers would also naturally flood the riparian zone at regular intervals,

thereby providing direct inputs of nutrients and water that create additional habitats and breeding opportunities for riverine Torin 1 price species. We examined the relationship between the quality of the riparian habitat and foraging and activity of bats (Chiroptera), which are good indicators of ecosystem health. Twenty paired sites in the Rivers Lee and Colne catchments in England were selected to test the hypothesis that degradation in the quality of riparian habitat reduces foraging and activity in bats; paired sites were similar in terms of size, flow rate and water chemistry but differed in the quality of their riparian zones. AnaBat detectors were used to measure bat activity from 30 min before dusk to 30 min after sunrise on the same night at paired sites because recording this website frequency-divided bat echolocation calls in real time allows large amounts of data to

be collected over long time periods in a digitized format. Significantly more feeding buzzes were recorded in sites with better quality riparian zones; no differences in overall bat activity were found between the two habitat types. Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Pipistrellus pygmaeus accounted for 96% of bat passes. Pipistrellus pygmaeus was significantly more active in high quality sites than P. pipistrellus; there was no difference between the two species in poor quality sites. We show that the quality of riparian buffer zones is important for the activity and feeding behaviour of pipistrelle bats. “
“A key feature of the ancient body plan of scorpions is the pincer or chela. These multifunctional structures vary considerably in size and shape between different scorpion species.