lamium Methods: The plant

was dried and extracted by mac

lamium. Methods: The plant

was dried and extracted by maceration in CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1 v/v). Structures of the compounds from the CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) soluble fraction were determined by spectroscopic methods and compared with published data. The broth micro dilution method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungal species. Results: Four known compounds: aurantiamide acetate (1), lupeol (2), lespedin (3), sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and a mixture of sterols: campesterol (5), stigmasterol (6) and β-sitosterol (7) were isolated #moreover keyword# from CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) extract of B. lamium aerial parts. The crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds exhibited both antibacterial and antifungal activities that varied with microorganism (MIC=6.25

– 1000 µg/ml). Compound 3 was the most active (MIC=6.25 – 100 µg/ml) while Staphylococcus Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans were the most sensitive to all the tested compounds. Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate that the CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) extract and some of isolated compounds have meantime interesting antimicrobial properties and can be used for the treatment of fungal and bacterial infections. Key Words: Antifungal, antibacterial, phytochemicals Introduction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms that are resistant to major classes of antibiotics has increased in recent years, due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs.1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical This has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases, and the antibiotics commonly used are sometimes associated with adverse effects such as hypersensitivity, allergic reaction and immunosuppression in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the host.2 Thus, the search for the discovery of new antimicrobial agents is an urgent need. Cameroonian traditional medicine is increasingly solicited through tradipractitioners and herbalists in the treatments of infectious diseases. On

the other hand, about 80% of citizens in developing countries use traditional AV-951 medicine based on plant products.3 Traditionally, dry herbs are used either boiled in water like tea or as an infusion to treat systemic bacterial and fungal infections, or are directly applied on the skin or nails in a plaster form to treat local infections.4 Some species of the Acanthaceae family present antimicrobial activities.5 Previous chemical studies with species of this family were related to the isolation of alkaloids, iridoids, lignans, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids glycosides.6 Brillantaisia lamium (Nees) Benth is an erect branched herb from Acanthaceae family, which has a height of about and is found in moist tropical areas growing both in full sun and partial shade.

These findings suggest that maternal LG in the neonate increases

These findings suggest that maternal LG in the neonate increases NGFIA expression in the hippocampus and NGFIA binding to the exon 17 promoter. NGFIA might then increase GR expression in hippocampal neurons, and these findings might then provide a mechanism for the effect of maternal care over the first week of life. However, while there are striking differences in NGFIA

expression in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical offspring of high- and low-LG mothers at day 6 of postnatal life, hippocampal NGFIA expression in adulthood is unaffected by maternal care: there is no difference in hippocampal NGFIA expression in the adult offspring of high- and low-LG dams. We are thus left with the defining question of early experience studies: how are the effects of early life events sustained into adulthood? Epigenetic programming of stress reponses Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical While we are all familiar

with linear models of DNA and protein-DNA interactions where protein-DNA interactions occur, it would seem, in the absence of any obstruction, such models ignore the fact that most of the DNA is tightly packaged into nucleosomes that involve a close relationship formed by DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins (Figure 3).87 The actual formation of a nucleosome is 146 bp of DNA with a histone octamer core. The conformation or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical structure of the histone-DNA configuration regulates gene expression.88 Figure 3. Nucleosome core particle: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ribbon traces for the 146-bp DNA phosphodiester backbones (brown and turquoise) and eight histone protein chains.87 The configuration is maintained, in part, through electrostatic bonds between the positively charged histones … The relation between DNA and histone is maintained, in part, by electrostatic bonds between positively charged histones and the negatively charged DNA. This chromatin structure commonly precludes transcription factor binding to DNA and underscores the importance of enzymes that modify histone-DNA interactions. Most modifications of the nucleosome occur on amino acid residues along the histone Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tail that protrudes through the DNA, and is thus vulnerable to enzymatic modification (Figure 3). The relevant histone modifications include

acetylation, phosphorylation, ribosylation, and methylation. Each of these modifications can alter the interaction between the histones and the DNA, and thus alter gene expression. Our focus is on histone acetylation, which is closely Imatinib Mesylate associated with gene expression. One class of such proteins, histone acetyltransferase Batimastat (HAT),89 catalyze the acetylation of selected amino acids, on the selleck catalog protruding histone tails, most commonly histone 3 (H3). Positively charged amino acids such as lysine and arginine are the common targets for acetylation. Histone acetylation modifies the histone-DNA relation. Acetylation of the lysine (K) residue on H3 neutralizes the positively charged histone, opening the histone-DNA relationship, and facilitating transcription factor binding to DNA.

Finally, progress in the genetics of human epilepsies has e had i

Finally, progress in the genetics of human epilepsies has e had important consequences for clinical practice. Spell cific molecular diagnosis is now possible in symptomatic e individuals for several diseases, some of which have poor prognoses. Predictive diagnosis in presymptomatic indie viduals is also possible, although it does pose ethical

problems. From a pharmacological point of view, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these recent genetic discoveries should help understand the response (or resistance) of some epileptic syndromes to ri treatment and the adverse effects sometimes observed with antiepileptic drugs, and generate new antiepileptic drugs. Selected abbreviations and acronyms ADNFLE autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy BFNC benign familial neonatal convulsions GEFS+ generalized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical epilepsy with febrile seizures-plus nAChR nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PME progressive myoclonus epilepsy Notes We wish to thank Dr Merle Ruberg for critical reading of the manuscript.
The “classical”

dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia proposed that hyperactivity of DA transmission is responsible for the positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions) observed in this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorder.1 This hypothesis was supported by the correlation between clinical doses of antipsychotic drugs and their potency for blocking DA D2 receptors,2-3 and by the psychotogenic effects of DA-enhancing drugs (for reviews, see references 4 and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 5). These critical pharmacological observations suggested, but did not establish, a dysregulation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of DA systems in schizophrenia. On the other hand, negative and cognitive symptoms are generally resistant to treatment by antipsychotic drugs. Impairment in higher cognitive functions, such as working memory, is one of the most, enduring

symptoms of schizophrenia and a strong predictor of poor clinical outcome.6 Functional selleckchem U0126 brain-imaging studies selleck chem Trichostatin A suggested that these symptoms arc associated Batimastat with a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC).7-9 Studies in nonhuman primates demonstrated that deficit in DA transmission in the PFC and lack of stimulation of D1 receptors (the main DA receptor subtype in the PFC) induce cognitive impairments reminiscent of those observed in patients with schizophrenia.10 Together, these observations suggest that a deficit in DA transmission at D-, receptors in the PFC might be implicated in the cognitive impairments presented by these patients.

D3 and D4 lymphadenectomies include their respective compartments

D3 and D4 lymphadenectomies include their respective compartments. AJCC criteria designates involvement of hepatoduodenal, retropancreatic, mesenteric, and para-aortic nodes (i.e., compartment III and IV) as distant metastases (9). CT criteria for lymph node metastases include size, shape, central necrosis and heterogeneity (13), (14). When these characteristics are selleck bio present there is a strong correlation with metastatic involvement. However, CT sensitivity suffers because a small tumor burden in a lymph node is unlikely to produce

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the morphological changes sufficient to satisfy CT criteria. In concept, PET seems an excellent adjunct therapy to detect these anatomically small but potentially metabolically active focuses of metastatic disease. However, the relatively poor spatial resolution of PET makes it less effective because of the difficulty of distinguishing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical compartment I and II nodes from the primary tumor itself. The real value of PET may be in the detection of “distant” Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical metastatic disease in compartments III and

IV and not amenable to surgical resection with a standard D2 lymphadenectomy. Identification of further spread with PET imaging may influence surgical planning for a more aggressive lymphadenectomy or the decision to avoid surgery altogether as futile and unnecessarily morbid (15). Solid organ metastasis from the stomach occurs most commonly in the liver via hematogenous dissemination through the portal vein (16), (17). Lymphatic and peritoneal dissemination are also Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical common pathways of spread in gastric malignancy. Although distant metastases are frequently detectable using contrast CT, PET is perhaps most useful in the detection of

these distant sites of solid organ metastases. A meta-analysis by Kinkel designated PET as the most sensitive noninvasive imaging modality for this purpose (18). Because radio-tracer is distributed throughout the body, larger volumes can be more Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical easily scanned than is practical with CT. Peritoneal dissemination is a poor prognostic factor. Detection of peritoneal metastases may no change the surgical strategy from curative to palliative or deter the surgeon GSK-3 from laparotomy altogether. Increasingly sophisticated CT scans facilitate diagnosis of peritoneal metastases prior to visual inspection during surgery. PET may give additional sensitivity to CT. Diffuse uptake of tracer that obscures the serpiginous outline of the bowel may be an indicator of peritoneal metastases, as well as discrete areas of local uptake along areas within the peritoneal cavity that are otherwise anatomically unexplained (i.e. outside expected nodal stations or solid viscera) (11). Response to therapy PET may predict response to preoperative chemotherapy in gastric cancer. Ott et al.

In this overview, the policy perspective of the translation of ge

In this overview, the policy perspective of the translation of genomic science into selleck chemicals Health care practice is examined under the moniker of personalized medicine. The focus through this lens addresses how advances in science, technology, and health care in the United States come together while recognizing that global influences in all of these domains are increasingly relevant to the domestic picture. Currently, personalized medicine addresses two general advanced technology platforms; molecularly targeted therapeutics which are selective for a

specific biological marker (biomarker Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical – defined as a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of

normal sellectchem biologic processes, pathogenic processes, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention2), and molecular diagnostics. The latter, relative to the neuroscience areas, can generally be considered to include genomic diagnostic tests, biobehavioral testing measures, and imaging technologies. While recognizing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the value of the contribution of many advanced imaging technologies to drug discovery and development and clinical disease state assessment, this report is principally focused on genomic diagnostic technologies. Currently, three broad medical applications of these technologies are most frequently considered as personalized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical medicine approaches: to determine likelihood of clinical response with molecularly targeted agents, to determine polymorphisms likely to contribute to adverse events or subtherapeutic response to drugs, and to assess disease biomarkers as predeterminants for diseases and conditions, such as heart Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. In 2006, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) initiated a federal effort to coordinate and facilitate steps across the agencies to establish pathways

to enable genomic and personalized medicine to enter health care. In recognizing potential obstacles that predictive, preventive, and Brefeldin_A pre-emptive approaches to health care may face, the Personalized Health Care Initiative was launched to avoid unnecessary delays and develop effective communication strategies for the intended use of these technologies in health care. The framework for this initiative was built on two fundamental tenets: that linkage of clinical and genomic information would yield insights into human health and disease, and that the information gained from this linkage would be used, and not misused, to benefit patients and consumers.

e D1 and D2) This result is consistent with what is stated by s

e. D1 and D2). This result is consistent with what is stated by several studies showing that the control of symptoms and of the psychosocial dimension of dying [15,17,25,26,35-41], is given a higher relevance than the control of the dying process by the patient himself [15,19,25,26,34,51,55]. With regard to symptoms, the control of pain and of psychological distress (i.e. A1 and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical A2) is acknowledged as fundamental, while being assisted by a staff member in order to make the process of dying more comfortable (i.e. A3) is considered as less relevant. This result seems to be counteracted by the evidence from the literature,

which shows that being comfortable is seen as important both by patients and by health care professionals [59]. As to the relational and social dimension, a large number of documents state that individual preferences Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as well as personal values and beliefs

(i.e. B1) should be respected and honoured. This issue has been extensively discussed in the literature [4,12,23,25,51,56,60] and is particularly relevant for patients sharing cultural values which are different from those dominant in society [17]. Most documents combine the read more respect for personal beliefs and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical values with the importance of addressing one’s spiritual needs and of facilitating religious practices Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (i.e. D2), thus showing consideration for individual preferences both from the relational and from the existential perspective. However, the importance attributed to respect for individual preferences seems to be in contradiction with the minor weight lent to

the choice of the place of dying (i.e. C2). Further discrepancies can be found between issues related to preparation and issues related to the relational and social dimension of dying. Indeed, many documents check this recognise the importance of good communication between the patient and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the caring staff (i.e. B3), and state that communication should include information about diagnosis and prognosis, as well as the discussion of issues related to death and dying. Yet, this result jars with the fact that only a few documents refer to the awareness of diagnosis and of impending death (i.e. C1), an omission which is even more striking since how often Western surveys address this issue [4,12,23,25,51,53,57,60]. It Entinostat might be argued that, due to the discrepancies between the element of preparation and the relational and social area, it is not possible to derive from the documents an integrated model of best palliative care practice. In particular, it might be suggested that the documents do not offer a coherent model for policies directed to the actual empowerment of patients in the decision-making process. This is especially evident with regard to end-of-life decisions.

3 3 Stability Comparison of DOX-Loaded Liposomes with and withou

3.3. Stability Comparison of DOX-Loaded Liposomes with and without α1(IV)1263–1277PA To determine the effect that the α1(IV)1263–1277PA has on liposomal stability, DOX-loaded liposomes were prepared with and without 10%α1(IV)1263–1277PA. The DOX:phospholipid ratios were 1.65:1 (1300μg DOX:μmol

phospholipid) and 1.93:1 (1520μg DOX:μmol phospholipid) for targeted [+10%α1(IV)1263–1277PA] and nontargeted [no α1(IV)1263–1277PA] liposomes, respectively. Fluorescence intensity measurements for each vesicle sample at 4, 25, or 37°C were taken at selected time points over a 30 d period. The targeted and nontargeted liposomes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exhibited similar stability profiles over 918h (38d), with approximately 30–35% DOX Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical release at 4°C (Figure 2) and 40–49% DOX release at 25 and 37°C (Figures ​(selleck compound Figures33 and ​and4).4). Within the first 6h following preparation, the liposomes again demonstrated similar and minimal DOX release. Only ≤15% release was observed for both targeted and nontargeted liposomes when incubated at 4 or 25°C (Figures ​(Figures22–3), and targeted liposomes were more stable than nontargeted liposomes after 6h at 37°C (Figure 4). Data presented here are for the targeted liposomes possessing 10% PA, but similar results were observed for liposomes incorporating 5% PA (data not shown). Thus, the presence of the α1(IV)1263–1277PA

did not serve to destabilize the liposomes used in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this study. Figure 2 Temperature dependent stability comparisons between targeted [10%α1(IV)1263–1277PA] and nontargeted DSPG-DSPC liposomes loaded with DOX and stored at 4°C for 30d. DOX release was determined as … Figure 3 Temperature dependent stability comparisons between targeted [10%α1(IV)1263–1277PA] Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and nontargeted DSPG-DSPC liposomes loaded with DOX and stored at 25°C for 30d. DOX release was determined … Figure 4 Temperature dependent stability comparisons

between targeted [10%α1(IV)1263–1277PA] and nontargeted DSPG-DSPC liposomes loaded with DOX and stored at 37°C for 30d. DOX release was determined … 3.4. Cytotoxicity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of DOX-Loaded Liposomes for Cells Varying in CD44/CSPG Content Cytotoxicity experiments were performed on metastatic melanoma M14#5 and M14#11 and fibroblast BJ cell lines. BJ fibroblasts have ~60% of the CD44 content of M14#5 melanoma cells, while M14#11 melanoma cells have ~75% of the CD44 content [23]. The variation GSK-3 in CD44/CSPG content allowed for the examination of selectivity of liposome table 5 encapsulated DOX, free DOX, and empty liposomes (Scheme 1). Empty liposomes were included due to possible unpredictable cellular responses to specific lipids within a liposome [72]. Cytotoxicity results for targeted liposomes containing 5% PA were found to be inconsistent (data not shown), so only results with 10% PA are described below. A dose-dependent response was observed for M14#5 cytotoxicity by DOX encapsulated targeted liposomes (Figure 5), with an IC50 value of 9.8μM.

81 A number of studies have identified TREK-1 mRNA expression in

81 A number of studies have identified TREK-1 mRNA expression in rat atria, as well as in left, right, and supplier SAR302503 septal ventricular myocytes. 83–86 The protein appears to be arranged in longitudinal stripes at the surface of cardiomyocytes: a pattern that might support directional stretch sensing. 80 At the tissue level, TREK-1 expression is distinctly heterogeneous, with a gradient of mRNA expression that increases, transmurally, from epicardial to endocardial cells.

86 This heterogeneity appears to correlate with transmural changes in MEF sensitivity, where stretch causes the most pronounced action potential shortening in the sub-endocardium. 87 To our knowledge, mRNA analysis thus far has failed to identify TREK-1 expression in

the human heart. 88,89 It has been suggested that the TWIK-related arachidonic acid-activated potassium channel (TRAAK ( or TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel (TASK-1 ( of the K2P family, which appear to be expressed in the human heart, 90 may act as TREK-1 homologues. Indeed, when TRAAK is expressed in heterologous model systems, it forms a channel with very similar properties to TREK-1. 91 Characterisation of both the presence and functional relevance of these ion channels in human requires further elucidation. BKCa BKCa channels have large conductances, and they respond to voltage changes and alterations in intracellular calcium ion concentration in a manner that allows them to contribute to repolarisation. 92 Functionally, BKCa channels have been suggested to control heart rate and to offer cardioprotection during ischaemia. 93 Kawakubo et al. 94 identified mechanosensitivity of BKCa channels in membrane patches excised from cultured embryonic chick ventricular myocytes. Attempts to measure single-channel activity in post-hatch chick cardiomyocytes have been unsuccessful, although Iribe et al. 95 characterised a whole-cell ISAC,K Anacetrapib which was sensitive to iberiotoxin (a BKCa inhibitor). Interestingly,

this ISAC,K was also sensitive to extracellular sodium. The authors suggest that BKCa activation could occur secondary to mechanical modulation of sodium ion influx (e.g. via SACNS), and consequentially shift sodium-calcium exchanger activity towards preservation of intracellular calcium. If this is the case, BKCa might not be directly stretch sensitive. Whether or not BKCa channels are responsible for ISAC,K in embryonic chick cardiomyocytes, there is little evidence to suggest that BKCa channels form cardiac SACK in other species. In the human heart, BKCa channels are sparsely expressed, 92 and they may be confined to cardiac fibroblasts (where BKCa was detected using Western blot 96 ).

According to this assumption, we hypothesized that the strength i

According to this assumption, we hypothesized that the strength in the finger musculature in the anxiety condition will increase significantly for the experimental group but not for the control group from T1 to T2. Method Participants Twenty-two male and 28 female subjects (M = 23.30 years, SD = 2.19) with an age range between 20 and 32 years old participated in this study. They were recruited via announcements in local newspapers

and at the campus of the local university. The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were comparable with respect to age ([experimental group] EG: M = 24.10 years, SD = 2.05; [control group] CG: M = 22.50 years, SD = 2.34). The study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to the experiment and the participants received no compensation for participation. Induction of anxiety The emotion of anxiety was induced via the recall of a personal emotional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical episode which was connected to this emotion. Thus, participants had to imagine a very anxious moment in their Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lives where they could still feel this anxiety at the current time and were asked to relive this anxiety. There

is already evidence that self-generating an emotion is an appropriate method to induce an emotional state-like anxiety (e.g., Damasio et al. 2000; Rathschlag and Memmert 2013). Previous results by Rathschlag and Memmert (2013) demonstrated that participants who self-generated the emotion of anxiety experienced significantly more anxiety in this condition compared with other emotions (e.g., happiness, anger, and sadness). These Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical finding are in line with a lot of other studies (e.g., Lench and Levine 2005; Stopa and Waters 2005; Lench et al. 2011) and showed that anxiety can be generated in this way. In addition, participants were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical asked to recall the same personal emotional episode for both times of measurement. Measurement of the intensity of anxiety We used a LS to assess the degree of which

participants experienced the emotion of anxiety at the current time in relation to their anxious selleck screening library memory. Participants rated the emotional intensity of their anxiety, using a 9-point LS (emotional intensity: 1 = no anxiety to 9 = most anxiety). Measurement of state and trait anxiety In addition, anxiety was recorded using the standardized State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Laux et al. 1981). The STAI is a self-description questionnaire Carfilzomib including two nondependent scales, the applied state-anxiety scale (STAI State) and the trait-anxiety scale (STAI Trait), each of them consisting of 20 items. The scale sum values range from 20 to 80. The STAI State assesses how respondents feel “right now, at this moment” (e.g., “I feel at ease;” “I feel upset”), and the STAI Trait targets how respondents “generally feel” (e.g., “I am a steady person;” “I lack self-confidence”).

As a result, the annual discharge from the drainage system has in

As a result, the annual discharge from the drainage system has increased from 0.15 billion m3 to 0.45 billion m3 on average, i.e. one-tenth of the total inlet water. The average TDS of the drainage water has increased from less than 1 g/L to 2 g/L, four times that of inlet water. Soil salinity has been gradually controlled. The average grain yield has increased from 1,005 kg/ha before 1960 to 6,450 kg/ha after 1996. It is obvious that the artificial drainage system plays an important role in this achievement. However, on average, 70% of the inlet salt, computed by the administration office using a simple salt balance method, is left inside the system every year. Assuming the salt is distributed evenly throughout the irrigated area, the amount of accumulation would be about 3,100 kg/ha/yr, which could lead to a severe salinity problem.3.?Materials and Methods3.1. Data SourceTo depict the history of past spatial and temporal changes in soil salinity in HID, archive remote sensing images were used. LANDSAT was chosen as the major source as it is the world’s longest continuously acquired collection of space-based land remote sensing data. Similar data from IRS (Indian Remote Sensing satellite) and CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) were used when needed to compensate for the absence of qualified LANDSAT images.Images acquired in seven specific years (1973, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006) were selected for this study. For each year, images acquired in March, June and selleck chemical August were used. The images acquired during March, when the land is not yet vegetated and salt surface features are enhanced due to the freeze-thaw process, were used to delineate salt-affected areas. Images acquired in June and August were used to delineate the cropped (irrigated) area, as June corresponds to the mature season for summer crops and August for autumn crops, i.e. when the leaf area reaches its maximum. Images acquired at adjacent dates were used as substitutes if no qualified image was available due to bad weather or sensor failures. Table 1 lists the data used in this study.Table 1.The images used in this study.To link changes in salinity with land and water management practices, data on annual irrigation depth, annual drainage depth, annual rainfall and monthly averaged groundwater table d
Images from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of the ocean surface have been shown to routinely reveal the sea-surface roughness signatures of marine meteorological phenomena [1, 2]. This is because the near-surface wind rapidly generates short surface waves (here, we are referring to the order of magnitude 1 to 10 centimeter wavelengths) that roughen the surface. The characteristic wavelength of the SARs referenced above is also order of magnitude 1 to 10 centimeters.