The proportion experiencing symptomatic disease was equivalent to that of individuals infected with a fourth rotavirus infection. As the duration of immunity following rotavirus infection (1/ω) is uncertain, the value of parameter ω was estimated by fitting our model to England and Wales rotavirus surveillance data. The force of infection (λ) is dependent on susceptibles coming into contact with infectious individuals and on the transmission parameter of the infection, which is the proportion of susceptible-infectious contacts which result in new infections. Supported by household studies [19], [20], [21] and [22], BIBW2992 solubility dmso we assumed that only symptomatic

individuals are infectious and important in transmission. Incubating or asymptomatically infected individuals do not contribute to transmission in the model. The model assumed seasonal variation in the rotavirus transmission parameter β(t) as follows: equation(1) β(t)=b0(1+b1 cos(2πt+φ))β(t)=b0(1+b1 cos(2πt+φ))where b0 is the mean of the transmission parameter, b1 is the amplitude of its seasonal fluctuation and φ is the phase angle in years (t). The mean transmission parameter (b0) depends on age-specific mixing and contact patterns of the population. Age-specific transmission parameters were estimated by multiplying age-specific contact rates for England and Wales by a transmission coefficient q, which

INK1197 molecular weight is a measure of rotavirus infectivity. This parameter Histamine H2 receptor q was assumed to be age-independent. We used data on social

contacts that were collected as part of a large European study (POLYMOD) [23]. The methods used are described in detail in Appendix B. Values of parameters b1, φ and q were estimated by fitting our model to England and Wales rotavirus surveillance data to allow calculation of age-specific transmission parameters. Age-specific forces of infection (λ) were subsequently calculated by multiplying age-specific transmission parameters by the age-specific number of infectious contacts (total number of symptomatic infected individuals generated by our model). We assumed births (individuals entering the youngest age group) and deaths (individuals exiting the oldest age group) were equal, so that the total population size remained constant. Season of birth is thought to be associated with the risk of rotavirus gastroenteritis [24] and may, in part, explain the seasonality of rotavirus disease [25], so we varied the numbers of births over the year to mimic the observed seasonal pattern of births in England and Wales. For simulations and parameter fitting we used Berkeley Madonna. The optimal parameter fits for ω, b1, φ and q were obtained by non-linear least squares. During the model fitting, the parameter values μ, γ, α and δ were held constant at the values given in Table 1. For model fitting we used rotavirus surveillance data from the Health Protection Agency (HPA).