The tree was inferred from 1,470 aligned characters [10,11] of th

The tree was inferred from 1,470 aligned characters [10,11] of the 16S rRNA gene sequence under the maximum … Cells of the strain Yu37-1T are vibrio-shaped, 0.4-0.5 x 1.4-2.0 ��m in size, occur singly or in pairs and stain Gram-negative [1] (Table 1 and Figure 2). No spore formation was detected for Yu37-1T [1]. No data is available on the generation time of strain Yu37-1T. Nitrate is the only electron acceptor utilized, with ammonium as the end product [1]. Elemental sulfur, sulfate, sulfite, nitrite, iron (III) oxide, manganese (IV) oxide, selenate, selenite, arsenate, arsenite, fumarate and oxygen are not used as alternative electron acceptors [1]. Acetate, pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, succinate, malate, yeast extract, peptone and Casamino acids are utilized as electron donors with nitrate as the electron acceptor; fermentative growth has not been observed [1].

Strain Yu37-1T is strictly anaerobic and catalase negative [1]. Table 1 Classification and general features of C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T according to the MIGS recommendations [16] Figure 2 Scanning electron micrograph of C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T Chemotaxonomy The predominant compounds in whole cell lipids of C. nitroreducens strain Yu37-1T are saturated branched-chain fatty acids: iso-C14:0 (26.3%), anteiso-C15:0 (24.1%), iso-C13:0 (7.7%), C18:0 (7.2%), C16:0 (6.2%), iso-C16:0 (5.7%) and anteiso-C13:0 (5.3%) [1]. Menaquinone MK-8 was identified as the major quinone [1]. Genome sequencing and annotation Genome project history This organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position [26], and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project [27].

The genome project is deposited in the Genomes On Line Database [14] and the complete genome sequence is deposited in GenBank. Sequencing, finishing and annotation were performed by the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A summary of the project information is shown in Table 2. Table 2 Genome sequencing project information Growth conditions and DNA isolation C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T, DSM 19672, was grown anaerobically in DSMZ medium 1112 (Calditerrivibrio medium) [28] at 55��C. DNA was isolated from 0.5-1 g of cell paste using Qiagen Genomic 500 DNA Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) following the standard protocol as recommended by the manufacturer, with modification st/DL for cell lysis as described in [27].

DNA is available through the DNA Bank Network [29]. Genome sequencing and assembly The genome was sequenced using a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms. All general aspects of library construction and sequencing can be found at the JGI website [30]. Pyrosequencing reads were assembled using the Newbler assembler (Table 2). The initial Newbler assembly, consisting of seven contigs in four scaffolds, Dacomitinib was converted into a phrap assembly [31] by making fake reads from the consensus to collect the read pairs in the 454 paired end library.

I believe that there are

I believe that there are Pacritinib FLT3 other reasons as well for the persistence and prevalence of UV/DAD. Firstly the use of derivative UV/Vis spectroscopy facilitates the determination of one or more wavelengths where the compound of interest absorbs. Thus, the compound can be analyzed with negligible absorption from excipients/matrix. In one of the articles in this journal, I see the use of isobestic point in a bi-component sample analysis. Also, the widespread replacement of conventional (and very limited) UV/Vis detectors with DAD allows for simultaneous multi-component analysis, once certified or reference standards are available. DAD detectors are equipped with the software to perform peak purity assessment, thus providing an extra level of quality control to the LC�CUV/DAD analysis.

Unknown components in a sample are unlikely to be a problem in the pharmaceutical industry as they may be in, for example, the field of natural products chemistry. Even in the event that a drug preparation contains an alien component, there are many consultancy laboratories that will provide analyte identification quickly and economically, thus negating the need for an organization to invest in very elaborate and costly technologies. LC�CUV/DAD does, however, require that three conditions are met: The molecule must possess a chromophore or be tagged with a UV absorbing group. There has to be reasonable resolution between the target analyte and co-eluting impurities. The target compound and co-elutant must absorb at different wavelengths.

Once these criteria are fulfilled, the LC�CUV/DAD technology is more than capable of fulfilling the requirement of the regulatory authorities. There is also, I think personally, a growing awareness that MS technology is not the panacea that it once seemed; for example, it is prone to ion suppression/enhancement effects which can compromise its quantitative ability. Many published papers fail to investigate whether or not their method is susceptible to this phenomenon. Ion suppression results in the presence of low volatile interferences (salts, ion pairing agents, and drug components amongst others have been identified as culprits) in the sample matrix that hinders droplet formation and evaporation at the ionization interface. This then affects the amount of charged ion in the gas that reaches the detector.

In fact, ion suppression may not be evident during method development and emerges Anacetrapib only in the sample analysis stage. There are also many published papers which emphasize that LC�CMS requires little or no sample clean up. There are papers that have even gone so far as to say that chromatographic resolution of co-elutants is unnecessary. This may be the case for qualitative analysis where, for example, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) may be deployed but is a gravely insufficient and misleading strategy for method validation.

6% (inter-day precision) and 0 5%, 0 6% (intra-day precision) for

6% (inter-day precision) and 0.5%, 0.6% (intra-day precision) for IB and FM, respectively. This is confirming good precision of the method. The results are summarized in Table 3. Table 3 Results from determination of intermediate precision Accuracy The accuracy of an analytical method expresses the nearness between the reference value and found value. The accuracy of the method was evaluated in triplicate at three concentration levels, i.e. 50%, 100%, and 150% of target test concentration (52 ��g mL�C1 of FM, 1600& ��g mL�C1) of IBU in tablets. The results obtained are shown in Table 4. Table 4 Results from study of accuracy for drug product Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) The LOD and LOQ were estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1, respectively, by injecting a series of dilute solutions with known concentration. The limit of detection of IB and FM was 1.72 and 0.54 ��g mL-1, respectively. The limit of quantification of IB and FM was 5.73 and 1.64 ��g mL-1, respectively. Linearity The calibration curves plotted for FM and IB were linear over the concentration range of 50-160 ��g/ml for FM, 1600-4800 ��g/ml for IB. Peak areas were plotted against concentrations, and linearity regression analysis performed for the resultant curve. The correlation coefficient values of FM and IB are 1.000 and 0.999. Robustness The robustness of a method is its capacity to remain unaffected by small changes in conditions. To determine the robustness of the method, the experimental conditions were deliberately altered and system suitability parameters like relative standard deviation for replicate injections of IB and FM peaks and the USP resolution factor between IB and FM peaks were evaluated. The mobile phase flow rate was 0.3 mL min�C1. This was changed by 0.03 units to 0.27 and 0.33 mL min�C1, and the effect was studied. Similarly, the effect of column temperature was studied at 20 and 30 ��C instead of 25 ��C. The effect of mobile phase organic composition was studied by �� 10%. The effect of mobile phase pH was studied by �� 0.2 units. In all the deliberate varied chromatographic conditions (flow rate, column temperature, and composition of organic solvent), no significant difference observed in system suitability [Table 5]. Table 5 Results from study of robustness CONCLUSION A novel UPLC method proves to be simple, linear, precise, accurate, robust, rugged, and specific. The total runtime was 4 min, within which two drugs and their degradation products were separated. The method was completely validated showing satisfactory data for all the method validation parameters tested. The developed method is stability-indicating and can be used for simultaneous quantitative determination of the drugs IB and FM in presence of degradation products in stability by the industry. The adopted UPLC method can also be useful for the assay estimation of IB tablets, FM tablets individually also.

6% patients showed a normotensive lower esophageal sphincter comp

6% patients showed a normotensive lower esophageal sphincter compared to all patients showing hypotensive sphincter before surgery and this change was statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in the distance of lower esophageal sphincter from central incisors after surgery. Lower esophageal sphincter selleck relaxation remained complete both pre- and postoperatively in 100% cases. Hiatal hernia which was present in all cases (100%) pre-operatively was totally absent postoperatively (100%) and this difference was statistically significant. These findings were in accordance with those obtained by Wileman et al. [9]. Seven patients needed to continue the medications for three weeks after surgery to control symptoms. None of the patients required medications on a long-term basis.

Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. Among the patients who were operated, the SF-36 score for quality of life did not show statistically significant change in all the eight parameters after 3 months of conservative management. The mean score for all the 8 parameters of quality of life showed improvement at 6 months after surgery. This increase was statistically significant in the areas of social functioning, pain, and general health. Among the patients who were managed conservatively, there was statistically significant improvement in score for physical functioning, role limitation due to physical health, role limitation due to emotional problems, emotional well-being, social functioning, and general health at 3 months.

Mean score for these 6 parameters improved further at 9 months from diagnosis. Increase in mean score for pain was statistically insignificant at 3 months; however, it was statistically significant at 9 months (Table 4). In the review done by Wileman et al. [9], there were statistically significant improvements in the health-related quality of life at three months and one year after surgery compared to medical therapy. Table 4 Table showing changes in mean score of quality of life in operated patients. 4. Conclusion The conclusions of our prospective study of 50 patients of gastroesophageal reflux disease can be summarized as follows. In the urban Indian setup, gastroesophageal reflux disease was the most common in the age group of 20 to 40 years and both sexes were equally affected.

Lifestyle related factors like daily intake of tea or coffee, sedentary life style, spicy and oily food, nonvegetarian diet, Drug_discovery alcohol consumption and smoking/tobacco chewing may be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Heartburn and regurgitation were the most common presenting symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The majority of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease had hiatal hernia and esophagitis on endoscopy. On esophageal manometry, all patients had hiatal hernia with hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter and complete relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter.

GEBA focuses on cultured isolates that have a formal species desc

GEBA focuses on cultured isolates that have a formal species description (type strains). A frequent misconception is that FTY720 molecular weight the types used in taxonomy (type strains, type species, type genera etc.) are taxonomic types used for representing a certain taxon by its most typical member. If so, they were bound to, and dependent on, certain taxonomic views such as species concepts or even the general notion that evolution is best represented by a hierarchical classification such as the currently dominating Linnean taxonomy [3]. The critique of hierarchical classifications as being unsuitable for microbiology because of the occurrence of lateral gene transfer, yielding rather a network than a hierarchy [4], would then also affect GEBA.

But types are nomenclatural constructs which, given a certain taxonomic view, define which names are to be used for a taxon [5]. In microbiology, the use of type strains for genome projects has the additional practical advantage that these strains are guaranteed, or nearly so, to be deposited in at least two distinct culture collections in two distinct countries [6,7]. This ensures that living material is available for follow-up studies that test genome-sequence-derived hypotheses. The availability of biological reference material or even genomic DNA (gDNA) [8] is a great step forward to ensuring reproducibility of the results [2]. The target organisms of GEBA are selected using a 16S rRNA gene-sequence-based phylogenetic tree (the gene on which the current bacterial and archaeal classification is largely based [6,9]), progressively filling in the genomic gaps [10].

Phylogeny-driven genome-sequencing projects are promising for improving microbial classification [4] and particularly for the binning of metagenomic sequences [10]. In the long term, the genomes of representatives of each branch of the tree of life, and of all type strains at the time of accession into public culture collections, will likely be sequenced. But GEBA targeted the organisms deemed genomically more interesting [10] first, and thus required a phylogeny-derived scoring system [11,12] covering all strains of potential interest. GEBA started with a pilot project (165 strains) that was subsequently extended to approximately 250 target strains and then followed by two phases of 1,000 target strains each. About 140 GEBA genomes have been published at the time of writing (October 2012).

For instance, target organisms of the GEBA pilot project included the type strains of Ktedonobacter racemifer, the bacterium with the largest genome sequence obtained to date [13], and Pyrolobus fumarii, the archaeon with the highest Anacetrapib known optimal temperature [14]. Taxonomic conclusions (e.g., reclassifications) were drawn from some of the newly obtained genomic information [15,16].

The predicted

The predicted selleck kinase inhibitor CDSs were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant database, UniProt, TIGRFam, Pfam, PRIAM, KEGG, COG, and InterPro databases. The tRNAScanSE tool [37] was used to find tRNA genes, whereas ribosomal RNA genes were found by searches against models of the ribosomal RNA genes built from SILVA [38]. Other non�Ccoding RNAs such as the RNA components of the protein secretion complex and the RNase P were identified by searching the genome for the corresponding Rfam profiles using INFERNAL ( Additional gene prediction analysis and manual functional annotation was performed within the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG-ER) platform [39]. Genome properties The genome is 6,649,661 nucleotides with 62.

16% GC content (Table 4) and comprised of 121 scaffolds (Figure 3) of 125 contigs. From a total of 6,398 genes, 6,323 were protein encoding and 75 RNA only encoding genes. The majority of genes (80.78%) were assigned a putative function whilst the remaining genes were annotated as hypothetical. The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 5. Table 4 Genome Statistics for Ensifer meliloti WSM1022 Figure 3 Graphical map of the genome of Ensifer meliloti WSM1022 showing the seven largest scaffolds. From bottom to the top of each scaffold: Genes on forward strand (color by COG categories as denoted by the IMG platform), Genes on reverse strand (color by COG … Table 5 Number of protein coding genes of Ensifer meliloti WSM1022 associated with the general COG functional categories.

Acknowledgements This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy��s Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-06NA25396. We gratefully acknowledge the funding received from the Murdoch University Strategic Research Fund through the Crop and Plant Research Institute (CaPRI) and the Centre for Rhizobium Studies (CRS) at Murdoch University. We also acknowledge ECR funding for J. Terpolilli awarded by the School of Veterinary and Life Sciences at Murdoch University.

Phocaeicola abscessus strain 7401987T(CSUR P22T= DSM 21584T= CCUG 55929T) is the type strain of P. abscessus. This bacterium was isolated from a brain abscess sample from a 76-year-old patient who underwent neurosurgical intervention after cancer of the face [1]. It is a Gram-negative strictly anaerobic coccoid to rod-shaped bacterium. Currently, the genus Phocaeicola contains only one species GSK-3 [2]. Here we present a summary classification and a set of features for P.

The second method used the Innozyme TACE Activity KitTM (EMD

The second method used the Innozyme TACE Activity KitTM (EMD during Biosciences). Serum starved R-VSMCs in 10-cm culture dishes were incubated in the presence or absence of 20 nm human plasma KK, lysed as recommended by the manufacturer, and normalized for protein content. Equal amounts of sample were loaded into 96-well plates precoated with an anti-human TACE monoclonal antibody, incubated for 2 h at room temperature, and washed, after which the activity of immobilized ADAM17 was measured using MCA-KPLGL-Dpa-AR-NH2 as above. Protein Immunoblotting Endogenous phosphoproteins were detected by immunoblotting whole cell lysates using phosphorylation site-specific IgG.

Serum-starved R-VSMC in six-well plates were stimulated at 37 ��C as described in the figure legends, lysed with 1�� hypotonic sample buffer (Invitrogen), sonicated, boiled, resolved by 4�C12% gradient SDS-PAGE (Invitrogen), and transferred to polyvinylidine difluoride membrane (Millipore, Billerica, MA). Phosphorylated ERK1/2 was detected using rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-ERK1/2 IgG (Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA) with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, West Grove, PA). Phosphorylated JNK1/2 was detected using rabbit polyclonal antiphospho-JNK1/2 IgG (Cell Signaling Technology). Phosphorylated EGF receptor was detected using rabbit polyclonal anti-ErbB1 phospho-Tyr1068 IgG (Cell Signaling Technology). Total ERK1/2, measured to confirm equal loading of whole cell lysate samples, was detected using polyclonal anti-ERK1/2 IgG (Upstate Biotechnology, Waltham, MA).

Immune complexes were visualized on x-ray film by enzyme-linked chemiluminescence. Multiple exposures were made of each immunoblot and band intensities on optimally exposed films were quantified using a Fluor-S MultiImager (Bio-Rad). ADAM17 Ligand Shedding H-VSMCs at 90% confluence in 10-cm culture dishes were serum-starved for 24 h, after which the medium was replaced with 7 ml of medium containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum and monolayers were incubated for 3 h, with or without 20 nm human plasma KK. Conditioned medium was collected and concentrated using iCONTM Concentrator 7ml/9K tubes (Pierce) centrifuged at 4000 rpm at 4 ��C for 1 h. Aliquots of concentrated medium were mixed with 2�� sample buffer and resolved by SDS-PAGE.

Amphiregulin and TNF-�� release were quantified by immunoblotting using rabbit polyclonal antiamphiregulin (Santa Anacetrapib Cruz Biotechnology) or anti-TNF�� IgG (Chemicon International, Inc., Billerica, MA) with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody. Confocal Microscopy To visualize GFP-PAR1�C4 internalization, HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding GFP-tagged PAR1, PAR2, or PAR4 as described.

The choice of the two markers was done regarding to their role in

The choice of the two markers was done regarding to their role in the initial steps in lung cancerogenesis.33 The screening characteristics of the panel were performed in a COPD group of patients with certain spirometric characteristics. Enzastaurin MM According to Purdue et al,34 COPD patients with FEO/FVC < 70%, FEO1 < 75%, had a higher relative risk for lung cancer development in comparison to the general population. Applying a preamplification assay we generated expression of both of the genes in almost all patients�� plasma. The preamplification was performed with cDNA and gene specific primers. It allowed concentration of the genes of interest and augmented the sensitivity of the real-time assay. The plasma expression of EGFR was detected in all patients. hTERT mRNA was observed in 88% of the investigated subjects.

The mean level of expression of EGFR in the NSCLC group was RQ = 29.39. In comparison in the COPD patients only 50% showed expression for EGFR RQ = 2.09. hTERT mRNA gene expression level was��RQ = 17.31 in NSCLC patients; in COPD patients hTERT mRNA expression was detected in 42.5% of the patients. Their mean RQ = 1.02. Comparing the mean values of the gene expression of EGFR and hTERT in the two groups, a statistically significant difference could be observed��p < 0.0001. Despite of the fact that patients with advanced stage of the disease participated in the study (sixteen��36% at stage III)��all patients with early stage lung cancer showed expression of both of the genes in plasma. These findings are consistent with the results of Miura et al,30 who ran a real-time PCR with EGFR and hTERT using absolute quantative analysis.

In contrast to our design their group of cancer patients included SCLC. The control group was entirely of healthy volunteers. They were able to define a cut-off copy number of EGFR and hTERT mRNA performing ROC analysis. The sensitivity and specificity in lung cancer diagnosis were 89.0% and 72.7% for hTERT mRNA, and 71.3% and 80.0% for EGFR mRNA, respectively. Although we were unable to perform an absolute gene expression analysis, the preliminary data of our study implies the diagnostic potential of EGFR and hTERT as candidate markers for lung cancer detection among high risk smokers. A larger cohort of early lung cancer and high risk patients should be investigated for the validation of our findings.

An absolute gene expression analysis is required to find the threshold value of gene copy mRNA and estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the panel of AV-951 markers. Conclusion The expression of EGFR mRNA and hTERT mRNA in plasma of non-small cell lung cancer patients provides a potential tool for molecular diagnosis of NSCLC among high risk groups of patients. Footnotes Disclosures The authors report no conflicts of interest.

The Src inhibitor CGP77675 was a gift from Novartis Pharma AG (Ba

The Src inhibitor CGP77675 was a gift from Novartis Pharma AG (Basel, Switzerland). All other chemicals were of analytical quality. Antibodies against phosphorylated AktSer473, total Akt, dually phosphorylated sellekchem ERKThr202/Tyr204, GAPDH and phospho-ShcTyr239/240 were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Boston, MA). Antibody against phospho-EGF receptorTyr1173 was obtained from Invitrogen. Anti-ERK antibody was from Upstate/Millipore (Billerica, MA). Secondary antibodies were purchased from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, CA) and Licor Biosciences (Lincoln, NE). Cells and culturing The rat hepatocarcinoma cell line MH1C1, derived from a Morris hepatoma [39], was obtained from ATCC (Manassas, VA). The cells were seeded onto Costar plastic flasks and cultured in Dulbecco��s Modified Eagle��s medium.

The Medium was supplemented with horse serum (10%), glutamine (2mM), and 100 U/ml Pen-Strep. The cultures were kept in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator at 37��C. Cells were seeded onto culture wells at a density of 40 000�C50 000 cells per cm2. After 24hours, the medium was changed and the cells were cultured under serum-free conditions 24h prior to stimulation. Hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats as previously described [40]. The hepatocytes were seeded onto Costar plastic culture wells at a density of 15 000�C20 000 per cm2. The culture medium was a serum-free 1:1 combination of William��s Medium E and Dulbecco��s Modified Eagle��s Medium. The medium was supplemented with 100 U/ml Pen-Strep, collagen (3��g/ml), insulin (100 nM) and dexamethasone (25 nM).

Immunoblotting Aliquots containing ~30000 MH1C1 cells or hepatocytes (total cell lysate prepared in Laemmli or RIPA buffer) were electrophoresed on 6�C12% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels (acrylamide: N��N��-bis-methylene acrylamide 30:1). This was followed by protein electrotransfer to nitrocellulose membranes and immunoblotting with antibodies against proteins as described in the figures. Usually the same membrane was stripped and reincubated with different antibodies, and then one single loading control was used as the final incubation. Immunoreactive bands were visualized with enhanced chemiluminescence using LumiGLO (KPL Protein research Products, Gaithersburg, MD) or by infrared imaging using Odyssey Infrared Imaging System, supplied by Licor Biosciences (Lincoln, NE).

RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis RNA from MH1C1 cells was isolated with Qiagen RNeasy kit according to the manufacturer��s instructions, and was treated with DNAse. The integrity of RNA was evaluated by ethidium bromide agarose Batimastat gel electrophoresis, and the quantity and purity was measured spectrophotometrically (OD 260/280). cDNA was synthesized from 1.0��g RNA with Superscript? III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) according to manufacturer��s protocol.

Most findings indicate that residents can perform some index gene

Most findings indicate that residents can perform some index general surgery procedures safely. An important caveat to operative independence of residents lies in the judgment of their teaching attending customer reviews (16). Factors involved in an attending��s decision to allow a resident to perform, like first operator, any surgical intervention include, among others, the skill and ability of the resident, the complexity of the patient and his/her disease, the resources of the hospital, and the urgency of the case (2, 17). The Italian residency program states that a resident must perform in his teaching development at least 80 procedures including either the more easy outpatient surgical procedure or most difficult procedures such as colectomy or gastrectomy.

In order to master most difficult surgical procedure, a resident need to reach several skills and the outpatient procedures could be useful to obtain this target (18, 19). However the outcomes should not get worse in a good residency program. The results, obtained by resident or attending surgeon, should be similar in order to ensure safety and efficacy of each surgical intervention. Thus a resident should reach several skills step-by-step. In this setting, our findings demonstrate that inguinal hernia repair and pilonidal sinus excision comparing to others surgical procedures evaluated in our study, can be the ideal teaching operation for a resident surgeon. More in details, the study demonstrates that the occurrence of complications after inguinal hernia repair and excision and primary closure of pilonidal sinus were similar either if performed by a resident or by an attending surgeon.

At variance, the results obtained after safenectomy and hemorrhoidectomy were worse if performed by a resident surgeon. However in a separate analysis we have demonstrated that the results obtained by senior resident or attending surgeon were similar among all surgical interventions. Whereas outpatient surgical procedures have to be taken into consideration as the ideal training for young surgeon in a residency program, saphenectomy and hemorrhoidectomy should be considered safe only if performed by a senior resident surgeon. Thus hernia repair and excision and primary closure of pilonidal sinus have to be considered the ideal teaching procedure in a residency program, giving to the young surgeon the opportunity of reach several skills that he need to master most difficult surgical procedures.

Breast Reduction (BR) is a common procedure around the world. Patients are screened for incidental carcinoma preoperatively by mammography Batimastat or ultrasonography and BR specimens are sent for pathologic examination postoperatively. Since the incidence of incidental carcinoma is very low, no consensus exist regarding efficiency of pathologic examination.