The average diffusion coefficients were

The average diffusion Vistusertib concentration coefficients were estimated by fitting the depth profiles with Equation 2. Red lines in Figure 1 indicate the fitting curves based on Equation 2. The calculated diffusion coefficients

for each temperature were described by dots in Figure 2. The diffusion coefficient obeys Arrhenius law: (3) where D 0 denotes the preexponential factor, ΔE is the activation energy, and k B is the Boltzmann constant. From the result of the fitting by least squares method, D 0 this website and ΔE were estimated as 3.93 × 10-7 cm2/s and 0.81 eV, respectively. The calculated diffusion coefficients of single-crystal silicon by van Wieringen et al. [22] and the estimated diffusion coefficients of an a-SiC thin film with hydrogen concentration of 0.4 ± 0.1 at.% by Schmidt et al. [23] are also described in Figure 2. D 0 and ΔE for single-crystal silicon and the a-SiC thin film are 9.67 × 103 cm2/s and 0.48 eV and 0.71 cm2/s and 3.2 eV, respectively. Compared with these ΔE values, ΔE for Si-QDSL is relatively close to the ΔE for single-crystal Si. Such small ΔE indicates

that the interstitial diffusion in Si-QDs is dominant because the thickness of the a-SiCO layers is too thin to work as barriers against hydrogen diffusion; this is due to the wide band gap and polar bonds of a-SiC [24]. Figure 1 Depth profiles of hydrogen concentrations. (a) At 300°C for 20 min. (b) At 400°C for 10 min. (c) At 500°C Erismodegib order for 3 min. (d) At 600°C for 1 min. Figure 2 Arrhenius plot of diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in Si-QDSLs. The calculated diffusion coefficients of single-crystal silicon by van Wieringen et al. [22] and the estimated diffusion coefficients of an a-SiC thin film with hydrogen concentration of 0.4 ± 0.1 at.% by Schmidt et al. [23] are also described. From the depth profiles

of Si-QDSLs for a treatment temperature of 600°C, hydrogen concentration was found to drastically decrease. Saturation hydrogen concentration after sufficient treatment was estimated at approximately 1.0 × 1021 cm-3, indicating that the hydrogen concentration at the surface drastically decreases because the loss of adsorbed hydrogen atoms is dominant at high temperatures. The defect densities of Si-QDSLs during after 60-min HPT for several treatment temperatures were measured by ESR. The defect densities originating from silicon dangling bonds (Si-DBs) and carbon dangling bonds (C-DBs) were also estimated. The waveform separation of the obtained differentiated waves originating from both Si-DBs and C-DBs were so difficult that the ratios between the densities of Si-DBs and C-DBs were estimated by the following equations [25]: (4) (5) and (6) where N Total-DB, N Si-DB, and N C-DB are the densities of total dangling bonds (Total-DBs), Si-DBs, and C-DBs, respectively. y is the ratio of N C-DB to N Si-DB and x is the composition ratio of C to Si.

Also, termites reared individually were more

Also, termites reared individually were more Veliparib susceptible to microbial infection than were termites reared in groups and subject to grooming by nestmates [15, 16]. To effectively FRAX597 control termites using microbes it will be critical to select pathogens that are capable of not only causing mortality but also withstanding detection and removal. Microbial strains that are both virulent

and non-repellent have a greater likelihood of being spread within a termite nest and controlling termites in the field. Results are described here for virulence and non-repellency of potential microbial control strains. Results and Discussion A concern when applying microbial control agents is whether they will repel the target insect rather than infect and kill them. Studies with termites in the laboratory show the ability of microbial agents to kill termites, however few of these experiments have been translated to the field [1, 3, 17]. FST are known to

remove infected nestmates from the nest and to partition infected areas of the nest and this has the potential to limit availability of inoculum [1, 15]. By selecting strains of fungi and bacteria that are pathogenic and also not repellent to termites, the probability of applying a microbial agent that functions successfully in the field is increased. I. fumosorosea Anlotinib datasheet is known to cause mortality of insect pests [8, 18]. A fermentation method was developed to produce stable spores in an inert powder which can be wetted, thereby inducing germination, prior to application [19]. This powder formulation has been combined with a biologically-compatible foam to permit expansion of the pathogen into the carton nest of termites Ureohydrolase [9]. Foam

expansion increases exposure of termites to the fungal pathogen carried therein. I. fumosorosea was previously shown to kill termites which were exposed directly to the dry formulation powder [8]. To more closely approximate field application of a wet microbial agent, termites were exposed to the spores in a liquid solution, as opposed to a dry formulation. The termites were transferred from the liquid to dampened filter paper, which served as a moisture and nutrient source, for incubation and enumeration of mortality. By day 7 the 106 and 108 spores/ml treatments caused 20.0 ± 0% and 72.5 ± 11.1% mortality, respectively (Figure 1). Upon calculating the analysis of variance it was determined that the 106 treatment was not significantly different from the control which caused 6.3 ± 2.4% mortality on day 7. On day 14, the control had reached 17.5 ± 4.8% mortality, while the 106 and 108 concentrations had reached 38.8 ± 6.9% and 92.5 ± 4.3%, respectively. All three mortality rates were significantly different from each other on day 14. On day 21, the 106 and 108 concentrations caused mortality rates of 82.5 ± 17.

Kim J, Takeuchi H, Lam ST et al (2005) Chemokine receptor CXCR4 e

Kim J, Takeuchi H, Lam ST et al (2005) Chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression in colorectal cancer patients increases the risk for recurrence and for

poor survival. J Clin Oncol 23:2744–2753CrossRefPubMed 15. Schimanski CC, Schwald S, Simiantonaki N et al (2005) Effect of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 on the metastatic behavior of human colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11:1743–1750CrossRefPubMed 16. Ottaiano A, di Palma A, Napolitano M et al (2005) Inhibitory effects of anti-CXCR4 antibodies on human colon cancer cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 54:781–791CrossRefPubMed 17. Jordan NJ, Kolios G, Abbot SE et al (1999) Expression of functional CXCR4 chemokine receptors on human colonic epithelial cells. J Clin Invest

104:1061–1069CrossRefPubMed 18. Dwinell MB, Eckmann L, #Q VD Oph randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Leopard JD et al (1999) Chemokine receptor expression by human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 117:359–367CrossRefPubMed 19. Rollins BJ (1997) Chemokines. Blood 90:909–928PubMed 20. Salvucci O, Bouchard A, Baccarelli A et al (2006) The role of CXCR4 receptor expression in breast cancer: a large tissue microarray study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 97:275–283CrossRefPubMed 21. Wang N, Wu QL, Fang Y et al (2005) Expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of expression and correlation with clinical outcome. J Transl Med 3:26CrossRefPubMed 22. Spano JP, Andre F,

Morat L et al (2004) Chemokine receptor CXCR4 and early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: pattern of expression and correlation with outcome. Ann Oncol selleck products 15:613–617CrossRefPubMed 23. Woo SU, Bae JW, Kim why CH, et al (2007) A significant correlation between nuclear CXCR4 expression and axillary lymph node metastasis in hormonal receptor negative breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 24. Dierssen JW, de Miranda NF, Ferrone S et al (2007) HNPCC versus sporadic microsatellite-unstable colon cancers follow different routes toward loss of HLA class I expression. BMC Cancer 7:33CrossRefPubMed 25. Speetjens FM, de Bruin EC, Morreau H et al (2008) Clinical impact of HLA class I expression in rectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 57:601–609CrossRefPubMed 26. de Jong AE, van PM, Hendriks Y et al (2004) Microsatellite instability, immunohistochemistry, and additional PMS2 staining in suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10:972–980CrossRefPubMed 27. Balkwill F (2004) The significance of cancer cell expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Semin Cancer Biol 14:171–179CrossRefPubMed 28. Contento RL, Molon B, Boularan C et al (2008) CXCR4-CCR5: a couple modulating T cell functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10101–10106CrossRefPubMed 29. Wald O, Izhar U, Amir G et al (2006) CD4+CXCR4highCD69+ T cells accumulate in lung adenocarcinoma. J Immunol 177:6983–6990PubMed 30.

985 ± 3 446) The difference between the knowledge scores of the

985 ± 3.446). The difference between the knowledge scores of the first year students and fourth year students was found to be statistically significant (p = .000). Discussion The present study investigated the nutrition knowledge of students receiving sport education in universities considering whether they took nutrition class (1st and 4th year students) and gender. Most of the participant students were

both continuing their university education and pursuing sports life in various clubs. In addition to the energy and food elements needed by regular university students, there are some extra requirements for sports type of these students. It is considered that people with inadequate knowledge of nutrition will also be unaware of additional nutrient needs. Over half of the participants (56.3%) 4-Hydroxytamoxifen in vivo correctly answered the statement “”eating carbohydrates makes check details you fat”"

as false. In another study, the majority of males (74.0%) and females (75.0%) correctly answered the same statement. The response to the statement of carbohydrates and the relationship between carbohydrates and body fat are encouraging, as many believe that those trying to improve body composition should avoid carbohydrates [7]. The sportsmen are inclined to think that sweets would provide quick energy just before competition. This prejudice may lead to rely on candy to provide the energy that should come from complex carbohydrates. The underlying goal of eating candies before exercise is to boost energy and minimize insulin surge that transports sugar out of the bloodstream into the muscles. Simple sugars induce high insulin, and when used before exercise, this can lower the blood sugar and elicit the fatigue as well as lightheadedness associated with hypoglycemia [11, 12]. A big proportion

of the students (72.3%) correctly answered the statement “”basic sugars like cube sugar, jam, and honey are the most suitable energy sources for sportsmen”" as false. Carbohydrates are the source of muscle energy followed see more by fats and proteins, whereas vitamins, minerals, and water are also essential for health but do not provide energy [13]. It is important for athletes to consume enough carbohydrates to maintain blood YM155 mouse glucose and to replace glycogen stores [14, 15]. Over half of the participants (61.2%) correctly answered the statement “”glycogen muscles store carbohydrate”". In a study carried out by Juzwiak and Ancona-Lopez [10], an important part of the participants (74.0%) gave correct answers to the statement “”glycogen levels (stored carbohydrate) can affect the energy level available for exercise”". The majority of the participant students (77.8%) answered the statement “”protein is the main energy source for the muscle”" as false. In the previous studies on this matter, the rates of people with correct knowledge changed between 28.0% and 54.0% [7, 8, 10, 16]. The athletes should be informed about the fact that proteins are not the main energy source for the muscles.

Absences were only counted as such when sufficient counts were ca

Absences were only counted as such when sufficient counts were carried out during the flight period. Relative colonization frequencies were then calculated on an annual basis

between 1992 and 2008 as the number of transects with colonizations relative to the total number of actively counted transects where the species might be expected, i.e. where it had been sighted in the period 1990–2008. Data on daily temperature (mean and maximum; in °C), radiation (in J/cm2, converted to temperature differences in °C), cloudiness (in octants, converted to %), and wind speed (in m/s, converted to Bft) were obtained from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (www.​knmi.​nl) AZD5153 molecular weight for the flight periods of the three species. For each year, we averaged the weather variables over the flight periods. The effects of average weather variables on colonization frequencies were tested using regression analysis with generalized linear models in R 2.7.0. We Cell Cycle inhibitor corrected for possible effects of density dependence by taking national population numbers (as indices) into consideration. The effect of both the current and the previous year’s weather was included (see also Roy et al. 2001). The current year’s weather is assumed to affect dispersal propensity of individuals that will subsequently be

CX-6258 solubility dmso sighted on a transect, newly colonized due to their dispersal. The previous year’s weather is assumed to affect dispersal propensity of individuals that will subsequently reproduce on a transect, newly colonized after their dispersal; their offspring will be sighted in the following year. Results Survival analysis Results of the survival analysis are on tendencies to stop flying (behaviour type: flying; Table 3) or

to start flying (behaviour type non-flying; Table 4). A greater tendency to stop flying implies shorter flight duration. The duration of flying bouts extended with high temperatures (C. pamphilus, P = 0.01; M. jurtina, P = 0.013). Intermediate and high radiation extended duration of flying bouts for P. argus (P = 0.011, P = 0.002 resp.), but high radiation showed negative effects on the duration of flying bouts for C. pamphilus (P = 0.01). Intermediate and Adenosine triphosphate high cloudiness reduced the duration of flying bouts (M. athalia, P = 0.002, P = 0.001 resp.; C. pamphilus, P = 0.017 for high cloudiness only). Intermediate and high wind speed also showed negative effects on the duration of flying bouts (C. pamphilus, P = 0.006, P = 0.0004 resp.) In general, males exhibited longer flights than females (C. pamphilus, P = 0.014) and in 2007, flight durations were longer (M. jurtina, P = 0.005; M. athalia, P = 0.025). Table 3 Results survival analysis for flight behaviour based on multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards model Covariate Species C. pamphilus (n = 853) M. jurtina (n = 420) Coef P l:i:h Coef P l:i:h Gender (male) −0.241 0.014   −0.101 0.53   Year (2007) −0.

Bioinformatics 2007, 23:1556–1558 PubMedCrossRef 56 Kimura M: A

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program. Brief Bioinform 2008,9(4):286–298.PubMedCrossRef 61. Waterhouse A, Procter J, Martin D, Clamp M, Barton G: Jalview Version 2 – a multiple sequence alignment editor and analysis workbench. Bioinformatics 2009,25(9):1189–1191.PubMedCrossRef 62. Castresana J: Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis. Mol Biol Evol 2000, 17:540–552.PubMedCrossRef 63. Nei M, Gojobori T: Simple methods for estimating the GSK2879552 order numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions. Mol Biol Evol 1986,3(5):418–426.PubMed 64. Ziheng Y: PAML 4: Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood. Mol Biol Evol 2007,24(8):1586–1591.CrossRef 65. Yang Z, Nielsen R, Goldman N, Pedersen A: Codon-substitution models for heterogeneous selection pressure at amino acid sites. Genetics 2000,155(1):431–449.PubMed 66. Fares M, Byrne K, Wolfe K: Rate asymmetry Beta adrenergic receptor kinase after genome duplication causes substantial long-branch attraction artifacts in the phylogeny of Saccharomyces species. Mol Biol Evol 2006,23(2):245–253.PubMedCrossRef 67. Yang Z, Wong WNR: Bayes empirical Bayes inference of amino acid sites under positive selection. Mol Biol Evol 2005, 22:1107–1118.PubMedCrossRef

Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Authors’ contributions HSV planned the study design and performed all the bioinformatic analyses. YY made the Korean isolates available for this study and provided insightful comments with regard to outer membrane proteins of H. pylori. TT sequenced pldA, genotyped CagA from the Norwegian and Korean isolates and contributed throughout the process. GB supervised the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Interstitial Cystitis or Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic condition characterized by frequent urination and bladder pain, which often results in reduced quality of life. Clinicians experience that this disease is becoming more prevalent [1].

This result corresponds well with data from Svalheim & Robertson

This result corresponds well with data from Svalheim & Robertson [77],

who showed that OGAs released by fungal enzymes with DPs ranging from 9 to12 are able to elicit oxidative burst reactions in cucumber hypocotyl segments. It also fits well with other data summarized by Ryan [78], showing that different oligosaccharides induce a vast variety of plant learn more defense responses. For example, oligomeric fragments of chitosan with DPs ranging from 6 to 11 are able to induce defensive mechanisms in tissues of several plants. OGAs with a DP below 9 are unable to induce phytoalexin production in soybean cotyledons [20], which corresponds well with the X. campestris pv. campestris – pepper system, where most of the elicitor activity resides in OGAs of a DP exceeding 8. Interestingly, OGAs can have different roles in other plant-pathogen interactions. In wheat plants, small oligomers of galacturonic acid (dimers and trimers) have a completely different function as they act as suppressors of the plant pathogen defense and thereby promote the growth of AZD8931 purchase pathogenic fungi [76]. In A. thaliana, where WAK1 was recently identified as OGA receptor [21, 23], only small cell wall-derived OGAs with DPs of 2 to 6 have been reported to induce genes involved in the plant response to cell wall-degrading enzymes from the pathogen E. carotovora[79].

Plants need to permanently monitor whether there are indications for pathogen attack, a task that is not trivial as it requires to efficiently filter pathogen-related signals from others, like those generated by commensal or symbiotic microorganism. For each plant it is of fundamental importance to decide correctly whether to initiate

defense or not, as defense includes expensive measures like sacrificing plant tissue by intentional cell death at the assumed infection site, while mistakenly omitted defense can be lethal [80]. Analyzing the interaction of pathogens with non-host plants is an approach to identify the molecular nature of plant-pathogen interactions. Beside the highly specific recognition of avr gene products interactions with host plants [81], lipopolysaccharides [26, 27], muropeptides [30], hrp gene products [31], secreted proteins [82] and the pectate-derived DAMP described in this study contribute to the reaction PI-1840 of non-host cells in response to Xanthomonas. Obviously, all these MAMPs and DAMPs are part of the very complex and specific damage- and microbe-associated molecular signal, where individual elicitors contribute in a complex manner [83] to obtain an optimal decision of the plant whether to initiate defense with all its costly consequences or not. While the A. thaliana OGA receptor WAK1 was recently identified [21, 23], it is now fascinating to see that the generation of a DAMP similar to that perceived by WAK1 is related to bacterial trans-envelope signaling.

1974) As suggested by Johnson and Ruban (2013) also voltage-gate

1974). As suggested by Johnson and Ruban (2013) also voltage-gated anion (Schönknecht et al. 1988) and cation (Pottosin and Schönknecht 1996) channels could be involved. Fast DIRK recording and new technique of continuously measured charge flux For the DIRK analysis demonstrated in Fig. 2b the P515 signal was recorded with a time resolution of 10 ms/point, which is more than sufficient to determine the amplitude of the rapid negative transient peaking around 350 ms after light-off. A much higher time resolution is required to resolve the initial

kinetics of the rapid negative transient. Figure 3 CFTR inhibitor shows a screenshot of a recording with 0.1 ms/point resolution (Fig. 3). Fig. 3 Recording of the fast decay phase of the DIRKECS selleck screening library response with indication of the initial slope reflecting the rate of charge flux briefly before light-off The initial slope of the dark-interval ECS-decay carries twofold information on the rate of photosynthetic charge fluxes, in terms of both electron and proton transport (Cruz et al. 2001; Sacksteder et al. 2001; Joliot and Joliot 2002; Joliot et al. 2004). Light-driven vectorial electron transport is coupled with proton transport from the stroma to the lumen, which is balanced by proton efflux via the ATP synthase, so that ECS in a quasi-stationary

state is constant (zero rate of ECS change, R light = 0). Upon light-off, the light-driven reactions stop, whereas proton efflux continues in the dark. Furthermore, it has to be considered that the light-driven electrogenic reactions not only involve charge separation at PS II and PS I, but also selleck chemicals llc vectorial proton translocation from the stroma to the lumen in the Q-cycle at the cyt b6f complex (Velthuys 1978). If it is assumed that the rate of the Q-cycle is not appreciably changed during the first ms after light-off (Joliot and Joliot 2002), it follows for the ECS changes in a quasi-stationary light state briefly before and after light-off, R light and R dark, respectively (Joliot et al. 2004): (1) R light is proportional to R ph + R bf − R efflux, with R ph being the overall rate of photochemical charge separation in PS I and PS II, R

bf the rate of proton translocation coupled with cyt bf turnover and R efflux the rate of proton efflux via the ATP synthase.   (2) R dark is proportional to R bf − R efflux, as R ph = 0.   (3) Dichloromethane dehalogenase R light − Rdark is proportional to R ph + R bf − R efflux − (R bf − R efflux) = R ph.   If in a quasi stationary light state positive and negative electrogenic reactions are balanced, as in the experiment of Fig. 3, R light = 0 and R dark is directly proportional to R ph. Furthermore, R dark is also a measure of the rate of proton efflux via the ATP ase, i.e., proportional to the rate of ATP synthesis. However, as apparent from point (2) above, the proportionality only holds as long as it is assumed that the Q-cycle is obligatory (Sacksteder et al. 2000).

These industries discharge various pollutants in gas and liquid f

These industries discharge various pollutants in gas and liquid form to the environment which are responsible for the environmental pollution [5–7]. One of

these pollutants is waste liquid which causes contamination, eutrophication, and perturbation in aquatic life. Waste liquid discharges various organic pollutants to the environment such as hydrazine derivatives, liquid ammonia, dyes, phenols, etc. Hydrazine and its derivatives such phenyl hydrazine are well-known organic pollutant and industrial MGCD0103 purchase chemicals which discharge to the environment from their uses in industries and as aerospace fuels [16, 17]. It is one of the great challenges to control these pollutants in the environment and protect the human and aquatic life. Various techniques and materials have been used to develop susceptible and consistent analytical technique to monitor and protect the environment from toxic nature of phenyl hydrazine. Among these techniques, electro-analytical method using various redox mediators has proven itself as one of the simple and well-organized technique for the recognition of various pollutants [10–12]. Here, we proposed ZnO composite nanorods as a sensor material for the detection of phenyl hydrazine by electroselleck inhibitor Chemical method to overcome the lower over potential of the conventional electrode and show good

performance in terms of sensitivity by improving electrochemical oxidations. Metal oxide nanostructures Batimastat solubility dmso have been used as a redox mediator Astemizole to overcome the lower over potential of the conventional electrodes

used in electro-analytical method and have shown good performance in terms of sensitivity by improving electrochemical oxidations [1–3]. Several reports in literature are related to pure and doped nanomaterials, but there is no literature about electrochemical properties of composite nanomaterials for phenyl hydrazine detection in aqueous phase. To get the utmost profit of the assets of nanomaterial, several methods have been established. However, we have used simple, low-cost, and low-temperature hydrothermal method for the synthesis of composite nanorods. The aim of this involvement was to prepare, characterize, and investigate chemical sensing performance of composite nanorods based on Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of the prepared nanorods were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy. Chemical sensing property was studied by simple I-V technique and detected phenyl hydrazine in aqueous solution with high sensitivity and selectivity. Methods Materials and methods Silver chloride, zinc chloride, ammonium hydroxide, and all other chemicals are purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co (Milwaukee, WI, USA).

Clin Infect

Dis 2010, 50:133–164 PubMedCrossRef 2 Cattan

Clin Infect

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MC, Goettsch WG, Picelli G, In’t Veld B, Yin DD, De Jong RB, Go PM, Herings RM: Inappropriate initial treatment of secondary intra-abdominal infections leads to increased risk of clinical failure and costs. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005, 60:438–443.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 7. Edelsberg J, Berger A, Schell S, Mallick R, Kuznik A, Oster G: Economic consequences of failure of initial antibiotic therapy in hospitalized adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections. Surg Infect 2008, 9:335–347.CrossRef 8. Sartelli M, Catena F, LY3009104 cell line Ansaloni L,

Leppaniemi A, Taviloglu K, van Goor H, Viale P, Lazzareschi DV, Coccolini F, Corbella D, de Werra C, Marrelli D, Colizza S, Scibè R, Alis H, Torer N, Navarro S, Sakakushev B, Massalou D, Augustin G, Catani M, Kauhanen S, Pletinckx P, Kenig J, Di Saverio S, Jovine E, Guercioni G, Skrovina M, Diaz-Nieto R, Ferrero A, et al.: Complicated intra-abdominal infections in Europe: a comprehensive review Reverse transcriptase of the CIAO study. World J Emerg Surg 2012, 7:36.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 9. Sartelli M, Viale P, Catena F, Ansaloni L, Moore E, Malangoni M, Moore FA, Velmahos G, Coimbra R, Ivatury R, Peitzman A, Koike K, Leppaniemi A, Biffl W, Burlew CC, Balogh ZJ, Boffard K, Bendinelli C, Gupta S, Kluger Y, Agresta F, Di Saverio S, Wani I, Escalona A, Ordonez C, Fraga GP, Junior GA, Bala M, Cui Y, Marwah S, et al.: 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections. World J Emerg Surg 2013, 8:3.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 10. Wilson SE, Turpin RS, Hu XH, Sullivan E, Mansley EC, Ma L: Does initial choice of antimicrobial therapy affect length of stay for patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections? Am Surg 2005, 71:816–820.PubMed 11.