Also, termites reared individually were more

Also, termites reared individually were more Veliparib susceptible to microbial infection than were termites reared in groups and subject to grooming by nestmates [15, 16]. To effectively FRAX597 control termites using microbes it will be critical to select pathogens that are capable of not only causing mortality but also withstanding detection and removal. Microbial strains that are both virulent

and non-repellent have a greater likelihood of being spread within a termite nest and controlling termites in the field. Results are described here for virulence and non-repellency of potential microbial control strains. Results and Discussion A concern when applying microbial control agents is whether they will repel the target insect rather than infect and kill them. Studies with termites in the laboratory show the ability of microbial agents to kill termites, however few of these experiments have been translated to the field [1, 3, 17]. FST are known to

remove infected nestmates from the nest and to partition infected areas of the nest and this has the potential to limit availability of inoculum [1, 15]. By selecting strains of fungi and bacteria that are pathogenic and also not repellent to termites, the probability of applying a microbial agent that functions successfully in the field is increased. I. fumosorosea Anlotinib datasheet is known to cause mortality of insect pests [8, 18]. A fermentation method was developed to produce stable spores in an inert powder which can be wetted, thereby inducing germination, prior to application [19]. This powder formulation has been combined with a biologically-compatible foam to permit expansion of the pathogen into the carton nest of termites Ureohydrolase [9]. Foam

expansion increases exposure of termites to the fungal pathogen carried therein. I. fumosorosea was previously shown to kill termites which were exposed directly to the dry formulation powder [8]. To more closely approximate field application of a wet microbial agent, termites were exposed to the spores in a liquid solution, as opposed to a dry formulation. The termites were transferred from the liquid to dampened filter paper, which served as a moisture and nutrient source, for incubation and enumeration of mortality. By day 7 the 106 and 108 spores/ml treatments caused 20.0 ± 0% and 72.5 ± 11.1% mortality, respectively (Figure 1). Upon calculating the analysis of variance it was determined that the 106 treatment was not significantly different from the control which caused 6.3 ± 2.4% mortality on day 7. On day 14, the control had reached 17.5 ± 4.8% mortality, while the 106 and 108 concentrations had reached 38.8 ± 6.9% and 92.5 ± 4.3%, respectively. All three mortality rates were significantly different from each other on day 14. On day 21, the 106 and 108 concentrations caused mortality rates of 82.5 ± 17.

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