This result corresponds well with data from Svalheim & Robertson

This result corresponds well with data from Svalheim & Robertson [77],

who showed that OGAs released by fungal enzymes with DPs ranging from 9 to12 are able to elicit oxidative burst reactions in cucumber hypocotyl segments. It also fits well with other data summarized by Ryan [78], showing that different oligosaccharides induce a vast variety of plant learn more defense responses. For example, oligomeric fragments of chitosan with DPs ranging from 6 to 11 are able to induce defensive mechanisms in tissues of several plants. OGAs with a DP below 9 are unable to induce phytoalexin production in soybean cotyledons [20], which corresponds well with the X. campestris pv. campestris – pepper system, where most of the elicitor activity resides in OGAs of a DP exceeding 8. Interestingly, OGAs can have different roles in other plant-pathogen interactions. In wheat plants, small oligomers of galacturonic acid (dimers and trimers) have a completely different function as they act as suppressors of the plant pathogen defense and thereby promote the growth of AZD8931 purchase pathogenic fungi [76]. In A. thaliana, where WAK1 was recently identified as OGA receptor [21, 23], only small cell wall-derived OGAs with DPs of 2 to 6 have been reported to induce genes involved in the plant response to cell wall-degrading enzymes from the pathogen E. carotovora[79].

Plants need to permanently monitor whether there are indications for pathogen attack, a task that is not trivial as it requires to efficiently filter pathogen-related signals from others, like those generated by commensal or symbiotic microorganism. For each plant it is of fundamental importance to decide correctly whether to initiate

defense or not, as defense includes expensive measures like sacrificing plant tissue by intentional cell death at the assumed infection site, while mistakenly omitted defense can be lethal [80]. Analyzing the interaction of pathogens with non-host plants is an approach to identify the molecular nature of plant-pathogen interactions. Beside the highly specific recognition of avr gene products interactions with host plants [81], lipopolysaccharides [26, 27], muropeptides [30], hrp gene products [31], secreted proteins [82] and the pectate-derived DAMP described in this study contribute to the reaction PI-1840 of non-host cells in response to Xanthomonas. Obviously, all these MAMPs and DAMPs are part of the very complex and specific damage- and microbe-associated molecular signal, where individual elicitors contribute in a complex manner [83] to obtain an optimal decision of the plant whether to initiate defense with all its costly consequences or not. While the A. thaliana OGA receptor WAK1 was recently identified [21, 23], it is now fascinating to see that the generation of a DAMP similar to that perceived by WAK1 is related to bacterial trans-envelope signaling.

Comments are closed.