The same reduction in TNF-α in EcN-di-associated pigs and increase in PR4-di-associated pigs was found as in the ileum, although it was not statistically significant in the colon. Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne infections. Serovar Typhimurium is a serious threat in individuals with immune deficiency in some African states
, but it is also a frequent aetiological agent of salmonellosis in humans and domestic animals in GSK-3 phosphorylation developed countries . The infection in mice represents a model of human systemic typhoid fever caused by serovar Typhi [35,36]. In contrast, serovar Typhimurium causes a similar type of infection in pigs and calves as in humans – i.e. gastroenteritis or systemic disease [19,26]. Therefore, gnotobiotic pigs were chosen as a more appropriate model, in which the results are not affected by background effects of the endogeneous microbiota [1,2]. Autochthonous bacteria and probiotic strains of bacteria can support colonization resistance of the host  and can enhance anti-microbial immunity in the gut [4,5]. Both E.
coli Nissle 1917 [20,21] and B. choerinum, as an autochthonous pig bifidobacteria , have been described as bacteria with suitable probiotic properties in piglets. The differences between bacterial strains complicate comparisons of their anti-microbial effect. B. choerinum is well adapted to the intestine of pre-weaned piglets . The strain PR4, used in this study, Ureohydrolase was an autochthonous pig strain. This is important, as it has been demonstrated
recently that cytokine PD-0332991 datasheet responses against Bifidobacteria are strain-specific . A beneficial effect of B. longum against infection with Salmonella Typhimurium has been described in conventional mice . E. coli Nissle (EcN) was isolated originally from the human  but spread later to porcine herds . We have reported its ability to colonize , and this has also been confirmed by others [40,41]. In spite of this, EcN translocation through the immature gut barrier of gnotobiotic piglets was lower than that of another commensal pig E. coli strain . EcN shows an antagonistic effect against various enteropathogenic bacteria in the pig . We have observed up-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin in ileal enterocytes of gnotobiotic pigs associated with EcN (not published). A combination of these beneficial effects is likely to explain the interference of EcN with translocation of S. Typhimurium. The distribution of bacteria and their protective effect against subsequent infection with Salmonella correlated with the clinical state of animals (anorexia, somnolence, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, etc.) and with cytokine expression in the intestine and blood. EcN prevented bacteraemia of Salmonella in gnotobiotic pigs. This important finding was associated with the absence of IL-10 and decreased TNF-α concentrations in plasma after Salmonella infection.