We report a series of six cases from a single institution During

We report a series of six cases from a single institution. During the past six years,

chylous ascites was diagnosed in six (35%) of 17 AIDS patients, all of whom had previously been diagnosed with intra-abdominal MAC immune reconstitution syndrome (MAC-IRS). A review of medical records identified no other cases of chylous ascites among HIV-positive patients over the past 13 years (1994-2007), and the incidence was estimated at one in 2248 HIV-positive admissions. The ascitic fluid had a milky appearance and a median triglyceride level of 4.07 mmol/L (range 3.19-29.6 mmol/L) (360 mg/dL, range 282-2620 mg/dL). After a median follow-up of 20 months, five (83%) of six see more patients survived. Chylous ascites is a late complication of intra-abdominal MAC-IRS, and is usually associated with a favourable prognosis.”
“A new

species of Meropeidae (Mecoptera) from Brazil, Austromerope brasiliensis sp. n., is described, representing only the 3rd extant species described in this family and the 1st record of the family from the Neotropical region. The distribution and biogeography of the family are discussed and we propose that Meropeidae originated before continental drift and then divided into two branches, northern and southern, with the breakup of Pangea. Identification keys for the Neotropical families of Mecoptera and for the Combretastatin A4 datasheet species of Meropeidae are provided.”
“Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one), a major flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Chinese name: Huangqin), showed potent anti-proliferative activity against a broad panel of human cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. A novel series of baicalein derivatives were synthesized by introducing a group to C6-OH and a nitrogen-containing hydrophilic heterocyclic ring to C7-OH via a length of 3 or 4-carbon chain in this study. The in vitro antiproliferative

activities of the 30 derivatives against HepG2, A549, BCG-823 cancer cell lines were evaluated. Among them, 10 compounds exhibit more potent cytotoxicity than baicalein against the three cancer cell lines. The most potent compound 9b possesses highest anti-proliferative potency against HepG2, A549, and BCG-823 with an IC50 value of 2.0 mu M, 0.8 mu M and 3.2 HSP990 manufacturer mu M, respectively. Preliminary mechanism studies with compound 9b using Annexin V/PI double-staining assay and DAPI staining assay indicated that 9b inhibits tumor cell proliferation potentially through inducing apoptosis. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Analysis of data from multiple sources has the potential to enhance knowledge discovery by capturing underlying structures, which are, otherwise, difficult to extract. Fusing data from multiple sources has already proved useful in many applications in social network analysis, signal processing and bioinformatics.

Experiment 1 was repeated for 5 consecutive days and Exp 2 was r

Experiment 1 was repeated for 5 consecutive days and Exp. 2 was repeated for 4 consecutive days. Data on reaction time, number of mounts, semen volume, semen concentration, sperm wave motion, and progressive linear motion (Exp. 1 only) were collected and analyzed as a randomized complete block design, where rams were initially blocked for breed and age. In Exp. 1, there was an effect of day (P < 0.05) and a treatment x day interaction (P < 0.05) on semen volume, whereas there was also an effect of treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.01) on semen concentration,

which was most evident on d 1. In Exp. 2, there was an effect of treatment on reaction time (P < 0.05) and semen volume (P = 0.08), which was most evident on d 1. This study demonstrates an acute effect on d 1 on semen concentration Bafilomycin A1 mechanism of action when rams were exposed to the sight and smell of a ewe

in estrus. Alternatively, when rams were stimulated with physical contact of a ewe in estrus, an acute increase in semen volume was evident on d 1. These effects were not evident on subsequent days and thus the overall benefits on ram libido and semen quality of exposing rams to ewes in estrus are minimal.”
“Objectives To estimate the interval cancer incidence, its determinants and the episode sensitivity in the Norrbotten Mammography Screening Programme (NMSP).\n\nSetting Since 1989, women

aged 40-74 years (n = 55,000) have been invited to biennial screening by the NMSP, Norrbotten county, CA4P Sweden.\n\nMethods Data on 1047 invasive breast cancers from six screening rounds of the NMSP (1989-2002) were collected. We estimated the invasive interval cancer rates, rate ratios and the episode sensitivity using the detection and incidence methods. A linear Poisson-model was used to analyse association between interval cancer incidence and sensitivity.\n\nResults 768 screen-detected and 279 interval cancer cases were identified. The rate ratio of interval cancer decreased with age. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest rate buy AZD6738 ratio (RR 0,52, 95% CI 0.41-0.65) and the 70-74 year age group the lowest (RR = 0.23, 95% Cl 0.15-0.36). The rate ratios for the early (0-12 months) and late (13-24 months) interval cancers were similar (RR = 0.18, 95% Cl 0.15-0.22 and 0.20, 95% CI 0.17-0.24). There was a significantly lower interval cancer incidence in the prevalence round as compared with the incidence rounds. According to the detection method the episode sensitivity increased with age from 57% in the age group 40-49 years to 84% in the age group 70-74 years. The corresponding figures for the incidence method were 50% and 77%, respectively.

It is suggested that despite the phenomenological similarity betw

It is suggested that despite the phenomenological similarity between cataleptic states of different origin (pinch-induced, “audiogenic”) their neurophysiologic substrates overlap only partially. The findings are considered as presenting genetic model for further analysis of catalepsy.”
“There has been a good deal of research on the role of anxiety sensitivity in pain perception, but only recently have investigators begun to assess its role in labor pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of this relationship as well as the relationship

of state and trait anxiety with labor pain. Assessments of maximum and average labor pain were completed in three LY2603618 research buy different time periods (before, during and immediately after labor, and 1 month postpartum). Anxiety and anxiety sensitivity measures were completed during the late stage of pregnancy. A total of 46 primiparous healthy pregnant women, carrying a single child, participated in the study. State

anxiety correlated significantly with maximum (r = 0.352, p < 0.01) and average (r = 0.325, p < 0.05) labor pain expectancies, whereas trait anxiety correlated significantly with maximum labor pain expectancies (r = 0.306, p < 0.05). During labor, only the physical concerns dimension of anxiety sensitivity shared a significant relationship with sensory pain (r = 0.292, p < 0.05). In see more conclusion, anxiety shares a significant relationship with labor pain expectancies only, whereas the physical concerns dimension of anxiety sensitivity correlates significantly with sensory pain during labor. These data clarify the role of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity in the experience AZD8055 in vitro of labor pain. Clinical implications are discussed.”
“Recent studies have reported that a novel cardiac biomarker, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP), significantly predicts mortality inpatients with pulmonary embolism (PE)

at intermediate risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thrombolytic therapy on prognosis of the intermediate risk acute PE patients with elevated levels of h-FABP. This is non-interventional, prospective, and single-center cohort study where 80 patients (mean age 62 +/- A 17 years, 32 men) with confirmed acute PE were included. Only patients with PE at intermediate risk (echocardiographic signs of right ventricular overload but without evidence for hypotension or shock) were included in the study. h-FABP and other biomarkers were measured upon admission to the emergency department. Thrombolytic (Thrl) therapy was administered at the physician’s discretion. Of the included 80 patients, 24 were h-FABP positive (30 %). 14 patients (58 %) with positive h-FABP had clinical deterioration during the hospital course and required inotropic support and 12 of these patients died.

2%) and concordance percentage (91 9%) in comparison to our gold

2%) and concordance percentage (91.9%) in comparison to our gold standard selleck products of mFG score >= 8.\n\nConclusion: The three-area subset of lip, lower abdomen and thighs serves as a simple and less invasive method for hirsutism assessment and can be used in large epidemiologic studies. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the impact

of solid dispersions of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000), using the co-precipitation method, on the in vitro solubility and intestinal absorption of praziquantel (PZQ). The solubility of PZQ in solid dispersions and physical mixtures was assessed in purified water and TC-199 buffer. The everted intestinal sac model was employed to assess, in vitro, intestinal absorption of PZQ. A significant enhancement in both in vitro solubility and intestinal absorption of PZQ was found in solid dispersions

compared to pure PZQ and physical mixtures. RG-7388 purchase This positive series of preliminary results showed that solid dispersion of PEG 6000 is a valuable strategy for increasing bioavallability of PZQ and could also prove useful for other poorly water-soluble drugs.”
“In IEEE-802.11-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs), unfair bandwidth sharing may arise, because the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance protocol is designed to provide per-station fairness only in one hop. As the hop count from a mobile client to the gateway node increases, the throughput of the node drastically decreases. In this paper, we propose a fair bandwidth allocation scheme for multiradio multichannel WMNs. This scheme buy Selisistat provides fair bandwidth sharing among the nodes in a WMN, regardless of their hop distance from the gateway node. To achieve fairness, we first estimate the number of active nodes attached to each router and calculate the effective weights of routers based on the estimation. Then, we differentiate their contention window using their weights. For this method,

we derive a multihop packet collision model. The proposed scheme is fully distributed and does not require any global information. Through an extensive simulation study, we show that our scheme ensures per-node fairness without loss of the total aggregate throughput.”
“The present study was conducted to delineate whether N-glycosylation of zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins occurred during meiotic maturation and whether this N-glycosylation played a role in spermZP interactions of porcine cumulus denuded oocytes (DOs). After mechanical removal of cumulus cells from cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), DOs were cultured for 44 h in in vitro maturation (IVM) culture. The experiments were carried out to determine the effects of tunicamycin, a specific N-glycosylation inhibitor, for various intervals during IVM on spermZP interactions in porcine DOs.

We also explored whether neurochemical biomarkers (monoamine oxid

We also explored whether neurochemical biomarkers (monoamine oxidase, MAO; acetylcholinesterase, ChE; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, mAChR; N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, NMDAR) previously shown to be altered by MeHg in other wildlife were associated with brain Hg levels in these bats. Concentrations of Hg (total and MeHg) in tissues were significantly higher (10-40 fold difference) in South River bats when compared to reference sites. Mean tissue mercury levels (71.9 ppm dw in liver, 7.14 ppm dw in brain, 132 ppm fw in fur) in the South River bats exceed (sub)-clinical thresholds in mammals. When compared to the South River bats, animals from the reference site showed a greater ability

to demethylate MeHg in brain (33.1% of total Hg was MeHg vs. 65.5%) and liver (8.9% of total Hg was MeHg vs. 50.8%) thus suggesting differences in their ability to detoxify OSI906 and eliminate find protocol Hg. In terms of Hg-associated neurochemical biomarker responses, interesting biphasic responses were observed with an inflection point between 1 and 5 ppm dw in the brain. In the reference bats Hg-associated decreases in MAO (r = -0.61; p < 0.05) and ChE (r = -0.79; p < 0.01) were found in a manner expected but these were not found in the bats from the contaminated site. Owing to high Hg exposures, differences in Hg metabolism, and the importance of the aforementioned neurochemicals in multiple facets of animal health, altered or perhaps even

a lack of expected neurochemical responses in Hg-contaminated bats raise questions about the ecological and physiological impacts of Hg on the bat population as well as the broader ecosystem

in the South River.”
“Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats https://www.selleckchem.com/products/KU-55933.html were fed Nath’s hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (p<0.05). Pea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (p<0.05). Hepatic mRNA concentration of genes involved in fatty acids synthesis, such as fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase, was lower in pea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a marked cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering activity of pea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes.

Adverse events included diarrhoea (three Phytopica (TM) and one p

Adverse events included diarrhoea (three Phytopica (TM) and one placebo treated dog), polyuria/polydipsia (three dogs in each group), and polyphagia, intermittent anorexia and panting (one dog each in the placebo group). None of these by themselves

required withdrawal of treatment.”
“Emission of gamma rays from buried and exposed radioactive materials poses health risks at radiologically contaminated sites. Covering the source material with a barrier of adequate thickness and physicochemical composition can reduce the intensity of transmitted gamma rays (gamma), thereby reducing see more such risks. Herein, the Geo-Radiological Barrier Gamma Attenuation Model (GRBGAM) is developed to quantify gamma attenuation by earthen covers. The model allows variation of barrier and radioactive selleck chemicals source input parameters and comparison of emitted gamma intensities and attenuation ratios of different barrier designs for virtually any radioactive isotope decay chain. The model calculates the activities of successive amounts of decaying

isotopes within a decay chain and temporally couples the results with an exponential absorption equation to estimate the exit intensity of gamma radiation from barriers. A Weibull function integrated into the absorption selleck inhibitor equation, scales temporal changes in barrier density (rho(‘)) during long service times. This model can be used to optimize georadiological (georad) barrier mix composition and thickness

to increase gamma attenuation ratio to acceptable levels.”
“A porous LiMn2O4 consisting of nano grains was prepared by using polystyrene as template. It was studied as a cathode material for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs) using 0.5 mol l(-1) Li2SO4 aqueous solution as the electrolyte. Charge and discharge capacities at a current density of 10 A g(-1) (about 90C) were 76% and 95% of the total capacity (118 mAh g(-1)), respectively. The power density can be up to 10000 W kg(-1) and the cycling behavior is excellent. After 10000 cycles at 9C with 100% DOD (depth of discharge), the capacity retention of porous LiMn2O4 is 93%, which indicates that it can be used for a lifetime without maintenance. The main reasons for its excellent electrochemical performance are due to the nano grains, porous morphology and high crystalline structure. In addition, the acid-free aqueous electrolyte prevents Mn2+ from dissolution. These excellent results suggest a great promise for the development of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs) in practical application.

“Objectives: Evaluate transcochlear


“Objectives: Evaluate transcochlear

(TC)/transotic (TO) approaches surgery for midline intradural lesions arising from the clivus and cerebellopontine angle masses arising anterior to the internal auditory canal.\n\nStudy Design: Retrospective chart Screening Library review.\n\nSetting: Tertiary referral neurotologic practice.\n\nPatients/Intervention: Forty patients who underwent TC/TO approach surgery. Patients were grouped by whether the facial nerve was mobilized (TC, n = 15) or not (TO, n = 25).\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Indications, postoperative outcomes, and complications including tumor removal and facial nerve status (House-Brackmann grade).\n\nResults:

Forty percent MG-132 order of all TC patients were meningiomas, whereas 36% of all TO patients were cochlear neuromas. The remainder included tumors associated with NF2, acoustic tumors, malignancies, and other lesions. Complete removal was achieved in 92.5% of tumors. Of all patients, 42% and 55% had normal facial nerve function at the time of hospital discharge and follow up, respectively. Moreover, 22% underwent a facial nerve reanastomosis procedure. Early and late complications occurred in 11 and 14%, respectively. There was one surgery-related death. Complications included cerebrospinal fluid leak (9%) and unsteadiness (9%).\n\nConclusion: Vorinostat order The TC and

TO approaches provide access to midline intradural lesions, intradural petroclival tumors, and cerebellopontine angle tumors and cholesteatomas arising anterior to the internal auditory canal, without using brain retractors. Total tumor removal, including its base and blood supply, is possible. Facial weakness is frequent when the facial nerve is rerouted, but excellent facial nerve results are accomplished with the TO approach. With these approaches, recurrence is rare when all tumor has been removed. Their safety and efficacy encourage their use in extensive lesions.”
“Fungi are known to play key roles in ecologically important biogeochemical cycles and food webs. Most knowledge of environmental groups of fungi comes from terrestrial environments, and little is known about the potential for terrestrial fungi to colonize marine environments. We investigated the Delaware River estuary and bay as a model estuarine system to study the fungal community changes occurring along a transect from terrestrially influenced waters and sediments to a higher salinity, truly marine system.

Semisynthetic diet free from FFs altered GM composition significa

Semisynthetic diet free from FFs altered GM composition significantly; addition of PX changed the composition of the GM towards

that found in natural-diet-fed mice and increased production of FF-derived short-chain fatty acid metabolites in the colon. The highly diabetogenic natural diet was associated with expression of proinflammatory and stress-related genes in the colon, while the semisynthetic diet free from FFs promoted Il4, Il22, Tgf beta and Foxp3 transcripts in the colon and/or pancreatic lymph node. PX in the same diet counteracted these effects and promoted stress-related IL-18 activation in gut epithelial cells. 16S RNA sequencing revealed each diet to give rise to its particular GM composition, with different Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios, and enrichment of mucin-degrading Ruminococcaceae selleck products following diabetes-protective FF-free diet. Conclusions/interpretation FFs condition microbiota, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Adrucil(Fluorouracil).html affect colon homeostasis and are important components of natural,

diabetes-promoting diets in NOD mice.”
“Symptoms of T cell hyperactivation shape the course and outcome of HIV-1 infection, but the mechanism(s) underlying this chronic immune activation are not well understood. We find that the viral transactivator Tat promotes hyperactivation of T cells by blocking the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. Tat directly interacts with the deacetylase domain of SIRT1 and blocks the ability of SIRT1 to deacetylate lysine 310 in the p65 subunit Z-IETD-FMK purchase of NF-kappa B. Because acetylated p65 is more active as a transcription factor, Tat hyperactivates the expression of NF-kappa B-responsive genes, a function lost in SIRT1 -/- cells. These results support a model where the

normal function of SIRT1 as a negative regulator of T cell activation is suppressed by Tat during HIV infection. These events likely contribute to the state of immune cell hyperactivation found in HIV-infected individuals.”
“Background: Most patients presenting with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) eventually relapse. Symptom palliation, maintenance of quality of life (QoL) and prolongation of life are primary therapeutic goals.\n\nMethods: Sixty-six UK oncologists completed an online survey about AOC management. Two hundred and two patients were interviewed about care, treatment experiences and expectations.\n\nResults: Prior to diagnosis, 34% (69 out of 202) of women had >= 3 symptoms associated with AOC. Twenty-one per cent (43 out of 202) thought poor symptom recognition by general practitioners (GPs) delayed diagnosis. Amelioration of side effects experienced was variable, for example, only 54% (68 out of 127) distressed by alopecia had received sufficient information about it. Clinicians were asked ‘What minimum gain in progression-free survival (PFS) would make you feel it worthwhile to offer maintenance therapy?’; 48% (24 out of 50) indicated 5-6 months, but 52% (26 out of 50) believed patients would find PFS of 3-4 months acceptable.

5 +/- 5 3 percent in the ischemia- reperfusion group (p < 0 01

5 +/- 5.3 percent in the ischemia- reperfusion group (p < 0.01), the average percentage of necrotic/apoptotic cells (stained by both 7-aminoactinomycin D and Annexin V-PE) was 17.8 +/- 4.1 percent in the sham ischemia-reperfusion group and 39.2 +/- 3.1 percent in the ischemia- reperfusion group (p < 0.01).\n\nConclusions: Given the results of the present study, the authors GW786034 chemical structure hypothesize that the endothelial cells lining microscopic blood vessels are among the major contributors to ischemia-reperfusion-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis detected from rat skeletal muscle.

(Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123 (Suppl.): 131S, 2009.)”
“Study Design. Retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected American College

of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement database.\n\nObjective. We assessed whether preoperative cigarette smoking and smoking duration predicted adverse, early, perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing elective spine surgery.\n\nSummary of Background Data. Prior studies have assessed the association of smoking and long-term outcomes for a number of spine surgery procedures, with conflicting findings. The association between smoking and 30-day outcomes for spine surgery is unknown.\n\nMethods. A total 14,500 adults, classified as current (N = 3914), prior (N = 2057), and never smokers. Using propensity check details scores, current and prior smokers were matched to never smokers. Logistic regression was used to predict adverse postoperative outcomes. The relationship between pack-years and adverse outcomes was tested. Sensitivity analyses were conducted limiting the study sample to patients who underwent spine fusion (N = 4663), and using patient learn more subgroups by procedure.\n\nResults. In unadjusted analyses, prior smokers were significantly more likely to have prolonged hospitalization (1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3) and major complications (1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) compared with never smokers. No association was found between

smoking status and adverse outcomes in adjusted, matched patient models. Current smokers with more than 60 pack-years were more likely to die within 30 days of surgery (3.0, 95% CI, 1.1-7.8), compared with never smokers. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings.\n\nConclusion. The large National Surgical Quality Improvement population was carefully matched for a wide range of baseline comorbidities, including 29 variables previously suggested to influence perioperative outcomes. Although previous studies conducted in subgroups of spine surgery patients have suggested a deleterious effect for smoking on long-term outcomes in patients undergoing spine surgery, our analysis did not find smoking to be associated with early (30 d) perioperative morbidity or mortality.”
“BACKGROUND: Intetumumab is a human IgG1 anti-alpha v-integrin monoclonal antibody that inhibits angiogenesis.

“Transcription factor Histone Nuclear Factor P (HiNF-P; ge

“Transcription factor Histone Nuclear Factor P (HiNF-P; gene symbol Hinfp) mediates cell cycle

control of histone H4 gene expression to support the packaging of newly replicated DNA as chromatin. The HiNF-P/p220(NPAT) complex controls multiple H4 genes in established human cell lines and is critical for cell proliferation. The mouse Hinfp(LacZ) null allele causes early embryonic lethality due to a blastocyst defect. However, neither Hinfp function nor its temporal expression relative to histone H4 genes during fetal development has been explored. Here, we establish that expression of Hinfp is biologically coupled with expression of twelve functional mouse H4 genes during pre- and post-natal tissue-development. Both Hinfp and H4 genes are robustly expressed at multiple embryonic (E) days (from E5.5 to E15.5), coincident with ubiquitous LacZ staining driven by the Hinfp promoter. CX-6258 datasheet Five highly expressed mouse H4 genes (Hist1h4d, Histh4f, Hist1h4m GDC-0994 cost and Hist2h4) account for >90% of total histone H4 mRNA throughout development. Post-natal expression of H4 genes in mice is most evident in lung, spleen, thymus and intestine, and with few exceptions (e.g., adult liver) correlates with Hinfp gene expression. Histone H4 gene expression decreases but Hinfp levels remain constitutive upon cell growth inhibition in culture. The in vivo co-expression

of Hinfp and histone H4 genes is consistent with the biological function of Hinfp as a principal transcriptional regulator of histone H4 gene expression during mouse development. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Metabolic activation of new chemical entities to reactive intermediates is routinely monitored in drug discovery and development. Reactive intermediates may bind to cellular macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and may eventually lead to cell death via necrosis, apoptosis or oxidative stress. The evidence that the ultimate outcome of metabolic activation is an adverse drug reaction manifested as in vivo

toxicity, is at best circumstantial. However, understanding the process of bioactivation of structural alerts by trapping the reactive intermediates is critical to guide medicinal chemistry efforts in quest for safer and potent molecules. This commentary provides a brief introduction to adverse drug selleck kinase inhibitor reactions and mechanisms of reactive intermediate formation for various functional groups, followed by a review of chemical design approaches, examples of such strategies, possible isosteric replacements for structural alerts and rationalization of laboratory approaches to determine reactive intermediates, as a guide to today’s medicinal chemist.”
“The development of alternative, non-fluorinated membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells necessitates the co-development of a non-fluorinated electrode catalyst binder to ensure compatibility between membrane and electrode.