Finally, progress in the genetics of human epilepsies has e had i

Finally, progress in the genetics of human epilepsies has e had important consequences for clinical practice. Spell cific molecular diagnosis is now possible in symptomatic e individuals for several diseases, some of which have poor prognoses. Predictive diagnosis in presymptomatic indie viduals is also possible, although it does pose ethical

problems. From a pharmacological point of view, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these recent genetic discoveries should help understand the response (or resistance) of some epileptic syndromes to ri treatment and the adverse effects sometimes observed with antiepileptic drugs, and generate new antiepileptic drugs. Selected abbreviations and acronyms ADNFLE autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy BFNC benign familial neonatal convulsions GEFS+ generalized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical epilepsy with febrile seizures-plus nAChR nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PME progressive myoclonus epilepsy Notes We wish to thank Dr Merle Ruberg for critical reading of the manuscript.
The “classical”

dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia proposed that hyperactivity of DA transmission is responsible for the positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions) observed in this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorder.1 This hypothesis was supported by the correlation between clinical doses of antipsychotic drugs and their potency for blocking DA D2 receptors,2-3 and by the psychotogenic effects of DA-enhancing drugs (for reviews, see references 4 and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 5). These critical pharmacological observations suggested, but did not establish, a dysregulation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of DA systems in schizophrenia. On the other hand, negative and cognitive symptoms are generally resistant to treatment by antipsychotic drugs. Impairment in higher cognitive functions, such as working memory, is one of the most, enduring

symptoms of schizophrenia and a strong predictor of poor clinical outcome.6 Functional selleckchem U0126 brain-imaging studies selleck chem Trichostatin A suggested that these symptoms arc associated Batimastat with a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC).7-9 Studies in nonhuman primates demonstrated that deficit in DA transmission in the PFC and lack of stimulation of D1 receptors (the main DA receptor subtype in the PFC) induce cognitive impairments reminiscent of those observed in patients with schizophrenia.10 Together, these observations suggest that a deficit in DA transmission at D-, receptors in the PFC might be implicated in the cognitive impairments presented by these patients.

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