These compounds induced no discernible DNA fragmentation, and activated caspases much more weakly in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells. Both  and  failed to induce the production of acidic organelles, a marker of autophagy, in contrast to the nutritional starvation. These data demonstrated that 2-aminotropones showed relatively higher tumor-specificity than benzo[b]cyclohept[e] [1,4]oxazine, and that 2-aminotropones induced little or no apoptotic cell death in oral
squamous cell carcinoma, in contrast to Ro-3306 research buy HL-60 cells.”
“Background: Despite scientific advances in typing of C. difficile strains very little is known about how hospital staff see more use typing results during periods of increased incidence (PIIs). This qualitative study, undertaken alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT), explored this issue. The trial compared ribotyping versus more rapid genotyping (MLVA or multilocus variable repeat analysis) and found no significant difference in post 48 hour cases (C difficile transmissions).\n\nMethods: In-depth qualitative interviews with senior staff in 11/16 hospital trusts in the trial (5 MLVA and 6 Ribotyping). Semi-structured
interviews were conducted at end of the trial period. Transcripts were content analysed using framework analysis supported by NVivo-8 software. Common sub-themes were extracted by two researchers independently. These were compared and organised into over-arching
categories or ‘super-ordinate themes’.\n\nResults: The trial recorded that 45% of typing tests had some impact on infection control (IC) activities. Interviews indicated that tests had little impact on initial IC decisions. These were click here driven by hospital protocols and automatically triggered when a PII was identified. To influence decision-making, a laboratory turnaround time < 3 days (ideally 24 hours) was suggested; MLVA turnaround time was 5.3 days. Typing results were predominantly used to modify initiated IC activities such as ward cleaning, audits of practice or staff training; major decisions (e. g. ward closure) were unaffected. Organisational factors could limit utilisation of MLVA results. Results were twice as likely to be reported as ‘aiding management’ (indirect benefit) than impacting on IC activities (direct effect). Some interviewees considered test results provided reassurance about earlier IC decisions; others identified secondary benefits on organisational culture. An underlying benefit of improved discrimination provided by MLVA typing was the ability to explore epidemiology associated with CDI cases in a hospital more thoroughly.\n\nConclusions: Ribotyping and MLVA are both valued by users. MLVA had little additional direct impact on initial infection control decisions. This would require reduced turnaround time.