In contrast, a diverse assemblage that thrives
in relatively undisturbed conditions was present in samples with high IBI scores. Comparison of the new macroinvertebrate IBI with an existing fish IBI suggested that the indices respond to different environmental stressors and illustrated the limitations of using only one taxonomic group for bioassessment. We discuss new macroinvertebrate methods, an IBI development GSK923295 in vitro process, and the refinement of metrics that may be useful in tailoring assessment tools for large rivers or wadeable streams in other regions. We also present applications of the IBI, including its potential use in comprehensive large river monitoring programs and for evaluating management efforts.”
“Objective: To determine the pattern and predictors of growth velocity in early infancy in a resource-poor setting.\n\nMethods: Weight velocity between birth and first postnatal visit was determined in a cohort of preterm and full-term infants in Lagos, Nigeria using three mathematical methods reported in the literature. Maternal and infant factors predictive of weight velocity were identified by multiple linear regression analysis.\n\nResults: Overall, 658 infants were enrolled with mean gestational age of 37.7 +/- 2.0 weeks, birthweight of 3.2 +/-
0.6 kg and median age of 45 (interquartile range: Vorinostat order 42-48) days at follow-up. Offspring of older and HIV-positive mothers had significantly lower mean weight velocities while male infants and those with low birthweight and fetal growth restriction had significantly higher mean weight velocity than their peers. These patterns were consistent across the three growth models. Maternal age (p = 0.004), antenatal care (p = 0.007), HIV-status (p = 0.008) and gender Alisertib mw (p<0.001)
were predictive of weight velocity. Higher weight velocity was strongly associated with lower birthweight (p<0.001) indicative of “catch-up” growth as well as with higher gestational age (p<0.001).\n\nConclusions: While maternal status is predictive of early growth faltering, preterm infants warrant timely intervention to forestall/minimise the potential health and developmental consequences associated with their sub-optimal growth trajectory. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A solid acid boron phosphate (BP) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic effects of BP on pyrolysis and flame retardancy of epoxy resins (EP) were studied by various methods. Transmission electron microscopy images suggested that BP was uniformly dispersed into the EP matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry illustrated that loading of BP could slightly reduce the glass transition temperature of EP.