15 Teaching that incorporates the various aspects of

15 Teaching that incorporates the various aspects of intelligence Increases academic performance relative to conventional teaching.16 Sternberg has argued that intelligence is at least somewhat malleable throughout the lifespan. Biological bases of intelligence Biological approaches to intelligence directly examine the brain and its functioning.17 Intelligence as measured by IQ tests appears to be localized, In part, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and across the neocortex. People with higher Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical IQs show higher levels of functioning in the

superior parietal, temporal, and occipital cortexes as well as In subcortical regions of the brain, especially the striatum.18 Integration of functioning in the parietal and frontal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lobes appears to be especially important.19 Several different biological approaches have been used, most comparing biologically based measures to IQ. Neural efficiency Complex patterns of electrical activity In the brain as prompted by specific stimuli correlate with scores on IQ tests. In particular,

speed of conduction of neural impulses may correlate with intelligence as measured by IQ tests.20 Some investigators have suggested that this research supports a view that intelligence is based, at least in part, on neural efficiency.21 Additional support for neural efficiency as a measure of intelligence can be found from studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of how the brain metabolizes selleck chemical glucose during mental activities. Haier and his colleagues have found that higher intelligence correlates with reduced levels of glucose Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical metabolism during problem-solving tasks.22 Furthermore, Haier

and colleagues found that cerebral efficiency increases as a result of learning a relatively complex task involving visuospatial manipulations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (for example, in the computer game Tetris).23 As a result of practice, individuals with higher IQ demonstrate lower cerebral glucose metabolism overall. But they also show more specifically localized metabolism of glucose. In most areas of their brains, persons with higher IQ show less glucose metabolism, but in selected areas of their brains (thought to be important to the task at hand), they show higher levels of glucose metabolism. Thus, people with higher IQ may have learned how to use their brains more efficiently (see refs 24,25). These results are not consistent throughout the entire literature. Studies using electroencephalographic Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology (EEG) methods have also noted a pattern of neural efficiency in Intelligent individuals. Using EEG methods, Neubauer and colleagues noted that greatest neural efficiency was observed in the brain areas associated with the individual’s greatest ability.24 Today, however, event-related potentials (ERPs) are used more widely than EEGs In the study of biological bases of intelligence. Research has examined the relation between intelligence test scores and P300.

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