1b and c) This suggested that mutation of the vemR gene strongly

1b and c). This suggested that mutation of the vemR gene strongly affects Xcc virulence to cabbage. Decreased exopolysaccharide production has been correlated with loss of virulence in many plant pathogens (Coplin & Cook, 1990; Dharmapuri & Sonti, 1999; Kumar et al., 2003), including Xcc (Katzen et al., 1998; Dow & Daniels, 2000). Colonies of the ΔvemR mutant strain displayed rough edges, implying an exopolysaccharide deficiency. Thus, we performed exopolysaccharide analysis. The results showed that mutation of the vemR gene decreased exopolysaccharide production significantly, whereas

the complemented Cabozantinib cost strain ΔvemR(vemR) exhibited full exopolysaccharide synthesis ability (Fig. 2a). To further investigate the effects of mutation of the vemR gene on exopolysaccharide synthesis, expression of the gum gene cluster (Katzen et al., 1998; Dow & Daniels, 2000) was examined by promoter–GUS fusion

analysis. As shown in Fig. 2b, gum gene expression was significantly decreased in the ΔvemR mutant strain. These data suggest that the lack of exopolysaccharide production was due to the lower expression of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes in the ΔvemR mutant and this can lead to reduced virulence. Motility is also important for pathogenesis in a number of pathogenic plant Enzalutamide concentration species (Swings & Civerolo, 1993). The vemR gene is located in an operon flanked by fleQ and rpoN2 (Fig. 1a), which are involved in the regulation of flagellum synthesis (Hu et al., 2005). To test whether VemR participates in the regulation of motility, the mutant, the complemented Loperamide strain and the wild-type strain were grown on TYGS motility plates for swimming and swarming assays. The ΔvemR mutant strain displayed a four- to sixfold decrease in net migration compared with the wild type and the complemented strain for both types of motility (Fig. 2c–e), demonstrating that VemR is involved in the regulation of motility of Xcc. Extracellular enzymes are very important virulence factors of Xcc. Attenuated cellulase and proteinase production in this organism (e.g. by mutation of the rpfG or the ravR gene) has been shown to cause a low infection

rate (Dow et al., 1993; Dow & Daniels, 1994; Slater et al., 2000; He et al., 2009). In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes was assayed in the ΔvemR mutant strain. The production of extracellular cellulase, proteinase and amylase in the ΔvemR mutant was slightly less than that in the wild-type strain and the complemented strain (Fig. 3), suggesting that VemR plays a role in the regulation of these extracellular enzymes. One previous study indicated that insertional inactivation of the vemR gene did not affect Xcc virulence significantly (Qian et al., 2008), which is not consistent with the effects of vemR deletion observed here. Insertional mutation of the vemR gene could affect expression of the downstream gene fleQ.

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