, 2009, Higashi and Chayama, 2002, Quyyumi and Patel, 2010 and Sa

, 2009, Higashi and Chayama, 2002, Quyyumi and Patel, 2010 and Sander

et al., 1999). Therefore, the presence of proteinuria may be a harbinger of future hypertension. The law stipulates annual medical health examinations for all workers in Japan. Dipstick urine tests have the advantage of being inexpensive, quick and easy to perform therefore, it can be carried out during screening in any countries. Also, to evaluate kidney measures and follow these markers may encourage individuals at risk for hypertension to modify their life style such as sodium intake or physical activity at an early stage of pre-hypertension. Previous studies in Japan have clarified that the detection of proteinuria using dipstick tests in mass screening settings is a strong, independent predictor of end-stage renal disease http://www.selleckchem.com/products/MS-275.html (Iseki et al., 2003 and Iseki et al., 2008). Measuring

the level of urinary proteins is important not only for assessing the prognosis and diagnosis of kidney diseases (Matsushita et al., 2010 and Herget-Rosenthal et al., 2013), but also managing hypertension and diabetes mellitus, both of which can induce nephropathy (Araki et al., 2007 and Ibsen et al., 2005). Our results suggest that the early detection of proteinuria with a simple urine dipstick test may allow clinicians to identify individuals at high risk for developing hypertension. In addition, obtaining information regarding proteinuria many may be useful for encouraging persons at high CCI 779 risk of hypertension to modify their lifestyle. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these approaches are actually effective, particularly given the modest effect of positive proteinuria and incident hypertension observed in our study. In contrast to the many studies investigating the association between proteinuria and incident hypertension, the number of epidemiological studies reporting an association between a reduced eGFR and future hypertension is limited (Brantsma et al., 2006, Kestenbaum et al., 2008 and Takase

et al., 2012). Two studies have reported a significant association between a reduced kidney function and the incidence of hypertension (Kestenbaum et al., 2008 and Takase et al., 2012). On the other hand, a weaker association with incident hypertension for eGFR than for proteinuria has been reported in the PREVEND (Prevention of REnal and Vascular End stage Disease) Study (Brantsma et al., 2006). Similarly, in our study, the association between an eGFR of < 60 compared to ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and incident hypertension was weaker than that for positive proteinuria (vs. negative proteinuria). In this study, the eGFR was associated with incident hypertension only when it was lower than 50 ml/min/1.73 m2, a level recommended for referral to a nephrologist by the Japanese Society of Nephrology (Imai et al.

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