, 2009) Present analyses are cross-sectional and thus cannot det

, 2009). Present analyses are cross-sectional and thus cannot determine whether television viewing contributes to or results from phenotype status. While obesity has been associated prospectively with subsequent sitting time (Ekelund et al., 2008), television viewing also seems a plausible risk factor for obesity. A feedback loop may also be involved with sitting leading to worsened metabolic health/obesity status, leading to further

sitting. Results of this study of older adults indicate that a common type of leisure-time sedentary behaviour varies across metabolic and obesity phenotypes. However, differences were observed between non-obese groups only, suggesting that healthy GSK 3 inhibitor obesity is not explained through differences in leisure-time sedentary behaviour. The following are the supplementary data related to this article Supplementary Table 1.   Mean television viewing time (hours per week) by metabolic health and obesity phenotype in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 4931). None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to declare. The authors wish to thank funders, supporters, and participants of ELSA. JAB is supported by an Economic and Social Research Council studentship. MK is supported by

the Medical Research Council (K013351), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (HL36310), the National Institute of Aging (AG034454), the Academy of Finland, and an ESRC professorial fellowship. MH is supported by the British Heart Foundation

(RE/10/005/28296). “
“Promoting physical activity, including Epacadostat in vivo incidental activity incurred through transport, is a public health priority (Department of Health, 2011 and US Department of Health and Services, 1996). However, evidence to support interventions to promote population shifts in travel behaviour is limited (Ogilvie et al., 2007 and Yang et al., 2010). In a previous paper, we described how the longitudinal analysis of observational datasets could contribute to our understanding in this area, and demonstrated the importance of individual, household and environmental factors measured at baseline in predicting the uptake and maintenance of walking and cycling to work (Panter et al., 2013a). In this mafosfamide paper, we investigate a more specific association between changes in perceptions of the environment en route to work and changes in commuting behaviour. One feature of the ecological model of health behaviour is the notion that the context in which behaviour is undertaken is important (Sallis and Owen, 2002). However, the mechanisms by which the environment influences behaviour change are poorly understood (Kremers et al., 2006): they may involve direct, unmediated processes, or be mediated by the cognitive processing and storage of environmental conditions (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1982).

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