42 This is in contrast to social anxiety disorder and most other anxiety disorders, for which the point prevalence rates in the general population are much higher than in primary care, and subjects are unlikely to present to their family doctor owing to the nature of the condition.43,44 Panic disorder Diagnosis The key feature of PD in DSM-III is the occurrence of three or more panic attacks Lonafarnib molecular weight within a 3-week period. These attacks must not have been Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical precipitated simply by exposure to a feared situation,
must not be due to a physical disorder, and must be accompanied by at least four of the following symptoms: dyspnea, palpitations, chest pain, smothering or choking, dizziness, feelings of unreality, paresthesias, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hot and cold flashes, sweating, faintness, trembling, or shaking. In DSM-III-R, the definition was revised to require four attacks in 4 weeks, or one or more attacks followed by a persistent fear of having another attack, and the list of potential symptoms was revised to include nausea or abdominal distress and to exclude depersonalization or derealization. More importantly, DSM-III-R changed the
diagnostic hierarchy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such that PD could be diagnosed as a primary disorder with or without agoraphobia, and also dropped the category of agoraphobia with panic attacks. This change emphasized identifying PD as a discrete entity, and reflected the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clinical experience that panic attacks tended to occur prior to the development of agoraphobia, which was increasingly viewed as a phobic avoidance response to the frightening experience of spontaneous panic attacks, near panic experiences, or limited symptom attacks.45 DSM-IV criteria require recurrent unexpected panic attacks and persistent concern about having further attacks, worry about the implications of the attacks, or a significant change in behavior due to the attacks. Epidemiological data using these criteria are not available. Symptoms (with or without agoraphobia) Unexpected, recurrent, abrupt Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical episode
of intense fear or discomfort (ie, panic attacks) that peak within 10 min and may involve multiple systems. Feelings of unreality, detachment from self, and intense fear of losing control, choking, going crazy, having a heart attack, or dying during a panic attack. Suplatast tosilate Recurrent and unexpected panic attacks and, for at least 1 month after an episode, concerns about the consequences of a prior attack or having another attack (ie, PD). Symptoms of agoraphobia may be present: fear of getting into situations or going to places where a panic attack may occur and there is no escape or availability of help. Prevalence Table VI 7,8,11,14,25,46-52 shows prevalence rates for PD from a cross-national collaborative study in 10 countries, using DIS and DSM-III criteria.