“Background/Aims Different serum and urinary biomarkers h

“Background/Aims. Different serum and urinary biomarkers have been recently proposed to serve as markers of acute kidney injury. We tested the hypothesis whether NGAL and other biomarkers

could represent an early biomarker of contrast Small molecule library price nephropathy (CIN) in diabetic patients with normal serum creatinine undergoing cardiac catheterization in comparison with nondiabetic patients. Methods. Serum, urinary NGAL, cystatin C, urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) were evaluated before and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after cardiac catheterization using commercially available kits. Results. In both groups we found a significant rise in serum NGAL after 2, 4, and 8 hours, and in urinary NGAL and IL-18 after 4, 8, and 24 hours after cardiac catheterization. Serum cystatin C increased significantly 8 hours, reaching peak 24 hours after cardiac catheterization in both groups, and then decreased after 48 hours. L-FABP and KIM-1 increase significantly after 24 and 48 hours after cardiac catheterization. Oligomycin A Conclusions.

CIN was similarly prevalent in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. NGAL seems to be a potential early marker for nephrotoxicity and predictor of contrast nephropathy. It is particularly important in the upcoming setting of short-time hospitalizations for cardiac catheterization.”
“This work aims to develop norfloxacin-solid lipid nanoparticles (NFX-SLN) as an oral delivery

formulation. Hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique was employed to prepare NFX-SLN using stearic acid as lipid matrix and polyvinyl alcohol as surfactant. The physicochemical characteristics of SLN were investigated learn more by optical microscope scanning electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. Antibacterial experiments of NFX-SLN were carried out by broth dilution technique. Pharmacokinetics was studied after oral administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that NFX-SLN was spherical and the SLN of the optimized formulation had diameters 301 +/- 16.64 nm, polydispersity index 0.15 +/- 0.04, zeta potential -30.8 +/- 0.69 mv, loading capacity 8.58 +/- 0.21% and encapsulation efficiency 92.35 +/- 2.24% with good stability at 4 degrees C. The NFX-SLN had sustained release effect and sustained bactericidal activity. Cytotoxicity studies in cell culture demonstrated that the nanoparticles were not toxic. NFX-SLN resulted in significantly higher plasma drug concentration than native NFX. The SLN increased the relative bioavailability of NFX by 12 folds, prolonged the plasma drug level above the average minimum inhibition concentration from 14 to 168 h.

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