Conflict resolution refers to settling disputes with the approval of all parties, whereas conflict management refers to the long-term process of addressing conflicts constructively, some of which may never have a final resolution (Borg, 1992 and Charles, 1992). Conflict management may, in fact, offer better opportunities for achieving a more lasting and meaningful peace. Institutions are widely viewed as evolving in response to incentives to take collective action so as to minimize conflicts and transaction costs. However, the presence of institutions does not guarantee conflict prevention. Institutional weakness Everolimus nmr is pervasive
in fisheries and the coastal management sectors of most developing countries (Torell and Salamanca, 2002). In particular, legal and institutional frameworks which promote and protect access rights for small-scale
fishers are often either weak or poorly implemented (Delgado et al., 2003). Furthermore, the economic view of institutions and conflicts often fails to pay sufficient attention to the uneven distribution of power in society, since institutions and rules emerge through bargaining and strategic conflict, where the weaker actors often have no choice but to comply with the outcome (Knight, 1992). Consequently, existing institutions are unlikely to favor or fairly represent the interests of poor resource users when they differ from those of more powerful users. Thus, the need for institutional representation in management decisions, including those about conflicts, may represent an important motivator for fishers
Selleck Bleomycin to become involved in conflict management processes (Nielsen et al., 2004, Pomeroy et al., 2001 and Pomeroy et al., 2007). However, in practice, small-scale fishers’ low levels of social capital often mean that they are excluded 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase from opportunities to participate in formal conflict management processes, where such options exist. This implies a need for more participatory and inclusive conflict management processes such as those described in this paper. Although there is no single formula for dealing with conflict, a consistent conclusion in studies of fisheries conflicts is the need for interactive conflict management strategies and improving communication between the different layers of fisheries management (Garforth, 2005, Kuperan et al., 2003, Best, 2003, Mason and Spillmann, 2002 and Bennett et al., 2001). Communication among stakeholders, either between actors directly involved in conflicts or those who may play a role in negotiations, is integral to the process of framing problems (Coser, 1956). Communication is also vital for ensuring participation in the implementation of management decisions relating to natural resources and in settling any consequent disputes that may arise among stakeholders (Dugan, 1996).