Endocrine disrupting compounds are organic compounds that can cau

Endocrine disrupting compounds are organic compounds that can cause negative effects on the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife. The release of BPA into the selleck inhibitor environment can be through leakage from plastic packaging into water or food. This leakage is caused by heat and acidic or basic conditions which accelerate the hydrolysis of the ester bonds linking BPA monomers [1].The economic importance of phenols has resulted in the development of many methods for their detection and quantification [4]. However, owing to some advantages Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries such as low cost and miniaturisability, phenol sensing using electrochemical transducers has been widely studied [5,6]. The electroanalysis of phenols and substituted phenols is possible due to the oxidation of the electroactive phenolic group [7,8].
The electrochemical detection of BPA on different modified electrodes has been reported in the literature. For example, Li et al. used a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to obtain a detection Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries limit of 5 nM [9]. A similar work using gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) impregnated MWCNTs was reported earlier by Tu et al. [10]. In another study, BPA has been detected using a pencil graphite electrode modified with polyaniline nanorods and MWCNTs [11]. These reports were all based on some modified form of a carbon based electrode.The major problem with electrochemical detection of phenols (including BPA) is electrode fouling which results from phenol polymerisation [5,6,9].
The most common way of dealing with electrode fouling problems is to modify the electrode surface or use composite materials containing nanoparticles with electrocatalytic behaviour [6,9]. However, fouling still Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries occurs and this affects the sensitivity, reusability and reproducibility of the electrode. When using modified electrodes for the detection of phenolic compounds, the electrode is usually polished and re-modified Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries again for every new measurement. This modification step Entinostat (e.g., drop-dry or dip-coating methods) usually increases the analysis time [10,11]. Hence in this study, we present a low cost bare exfoliated graphite (EG) electrode, possessing a surface that can be renewed with good reproducibility, as a way of tackling the problem of fouling in BPA detection.Exfoliated graphite is a low density material produced from graphite.
It has good electrochemical properties and can be easily compressed for electrode fabrication [12]. Although EG electrodes have been available for some time now, there are currently no reports on the our website use of these cheap electrodes for the electroanalysis of water pollutants´┐ŻCan attempt which we have made in this report.2.?Experimental Section2.1. MaterialsNatural graphite and bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained from Sigma Aldrich while KH2PO4, K2HPO4, CH3CN, H3PO4 and NaOH were purchased from Merck Chemicals.

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