Finally, Section 8 presents the conclusions 2 ?System Model, Thre

Finally, Section 8 presents the conclusions.2.?System Model, Threat Model and Design Goals2.1. System ModelIt is widely accepted that clustered or distributed heterogeneous sensor networks can intelligently perform with network efficiency, operational performance, and long-lasting network life-times [27�C35]. Figure 1 depicts a model of a distributed WSN system, which is mainly composed of sensor nodes (L-sensors), cluster-heads (H-sensors), and a base-station (BS). This distributed system model is very suitable for mission-critical monitoring applications where sensors need to be deployed strategically, as suggested in [1,2,5,7,41,42]. Some of these applications are smart buildings, hospital environments, smart homes, nuclear power plants, gas-plants, and so on.Figure 1.

A system model for distributed WSN applications.In a heterogeneous clustered approach, as depicted in Figure 1, the L-sensors are resource-constrained devices (low power, short communication range, limited memory, and less computation power); while H-sensors are equipped with tamper-resistance and have more resources (such as high power, large communication ranges, large memory capacity and computation power). The L-sensors are strategically deployed in a cluster and each cluster is controlled by a cluster-head (H-sensor). The L-sensors simply sense the environment ambient data and forward it to the H-sensors and vice versa (i.e., cluster-heads can also request sensors’ data). It is assumed that the H-sensor can perform complex operations on the sensor data, and using longer radio it can directly communicate to the base-station.

The base-station (BS) is a powerful node and it has unlimited resources. The base-station may be a remote server and it may be connected to the outer-world using the high-speed Internet.In [32,33,43], the authors have suggested Carfilzomib that generally L-sensors do not need to share their data among themselves, hence connectivity between two L-sensors are not required, as found in real-time applications
The population in western developed countries is aging quickly. This has consequences in daily and working life [1]. It is necessary that the design of devices allows the extension of the autonomy of elder and/or impaired people. This is advantageous and also has benefits in terms of self-esteem and quality of life in general.

A straightforward application of the proposed device is its use as an alternative to the attendant joystick used with electric wheelchairs. Electric wheelchairs have two motors that power the two main wheels independently to allow turning maneuvers, including sharp turns, so they are usually driven with a hand-operated joystick. However, there are cases in which the use of a joystick can be awkward or even impossible, for example, for people who have upper spinal cord injuries, those with certain diseases of the nervous system, or who are mentally disabled or visually impaired.

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