( Happ et al , 1940, Wolman and Leopold, 1957 and Florsheim and M

( Happ et al., 1940, Wolman and Leopold, 1957 and Florsheim and Mount, 2002). Sediment transport capacity (TC) is the cumulative ability to convey sediment over time, which can be expressed by various hydraulic parameters such as stream power

or energy of flows available to carry the sediment. The applied hydraulic forces are driven by the magnitude and frequency of flows, so they are scale-dependent and time-variant. Thus, TC is variable in space downstream and laterally across the floodplain and is sensitive to climate and hydrologic changes to the basin. The flow regime may Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor be influenced by human activities that alter runoff; i.e., land-use changes that introduce sediment may also increase flood magnitudes and TC. One way to conceptualize the potential for LS storage at a site is as a storage potential ratio of sediment delivery selleck compound to sediment transport

capacity over time: equation(1) SP=fDSTCwhere SP is storage potential. When sediment delivery is equal to transport capacity over time, then the reach is transporting the load available and the stream at that location can be considered to be graded ( Mackin, 1948) ( Fig. 7). Under graded conditions, the product of sediment discharge and caliber should be proportional to the water and sediment load of the stream ( Lane, 1955). If deliveries exceed transfer capacity (DS/TC > 1), however, some storage is likely. If deliveries greatly exceed transport capacity through time (DS/TC ≫ 1), abundant deposition and channel aggradation is likely, even without barriers or sinks ( Fig. 7b). Thus, the likelihood of LS being stored at a site is a function of a variety of processes and conditions governing sediment production, transport, and deposition, flow hydraulics over time, valley bottom characteristics upstream and Tau-protein kinase at the site, and sediment characteristics. These relationships explain why thick graded LS deposits are common in the Southern Piedmont of the USA where erosion of thick residual soils produced large volumes of sediment, but LS deposits are punctuated and less

common in glaciated basins with thin soils. For application to longer time scales, DS and TC can be defined to include variability in exogenous variables such as climate or tectonics. The sediment delivery ratio (SDR) is defined as the sediment yield at a point (YS) as a proportion of the sediment produced upstream by hill-slope erosion ( Roehl, 1962, Vanoni, 1975, Renfro, 1975, Dickinson and Wall, 1977 and Robinson, 1977): equation(2) SDR=YSPS Due to storage between hill-slope sources and floodplains down-valley, the SDR is usually less than one and decreases downvalley systematically with drainage area (Roehl, 1962, Novotny, 1980 and Shen and Julien, 1993) (Fig. 8). The decrease in SDRs downvalley was conceptualized as the ‘sediment delivery problem’ by Walling (1983) and recently restated by Fryirs (2013).

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