However, it has also been shown that Stat1 is an active transcription factor involved in the constitutive, ligand-independent, transcription of some genes, such as caspase genes,24 and the LMP2 gene22,34, MHC class I.25 While ligand-induced, Stat1-mediated gene expression can either down-regulate or up-regulate the expression of target genes,22,25,35–37 most evidence suggests
that the steady presence of STAT1 is necessary for constitutive expression of target genes, and hence the absence of Stat1 will lead to the down-regulation of gene expression. In this study we showed that STAT1 has a suppressive effect on the ligand-independent, constitutive activity of the GILT promoter. In our experiments,
the GILT promoter in Stat1−/− MEFs learn more in the absence of stimulation with IFN showed a three- to fourfold GSK458 research buy increased activity of the firefly luciferase reporter gene when compared with WT MEFs. These findings are consistent with higher expression of the GILT protein in untreated Stat1−/− MEFs. However, upon treatment with IFN-γ, the levels of GILT protein do not increase in STAT1−/− MEFs, whereas GILT expression increases in WT MEFs, as expected. Therefore, STAT1 may play a dual role in the regulation of GILT expression: in the presence of inflammatory stimuli (e.g. IFNs) STAT1 rapidly increases the expression of GILT when it is necessary to process more antigens, whereas in the absence
of inflammatory stimuli it is unnecessary for the cell to process more antigens and therefore not necessary to up-regulate the production Astemizole of GILT. Tyrosine phosphorylation in response to cytokine stimulation of cells is believed to be required for the nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic STAT1 proteins. However, it has been shown that phosphorylation of Y701 is not always necessary for the nuclear localization of STAT1.38,39 Phosphorylation of serine 727 occurs independently of phosphorylation of Y701 and it substantially enhances the transcriptional activity of STAT1.40 Here, we showed that phosphorylation of tyrosine and serine residues in STAT1 is not required for in vitro binding to putative GAS sites in the GILT promoter. We used STAT1 mutants that lack either S727 (Stat1α-S7272) or both Y701 and the C-terminus (Stat1β-Y701), required for transcriptional activation and interaction with CBP/p300 complex, for co-transfection with the firefly luciferase reporter gene, under the control of the GILT promoter, into Stat1−/− MEFs. Transfection of either mutant decreased the activity of the reporter gene to the level similar to that seen in WT cells. Therefore, our data suggest that neither phosphorylation of Y701 nor of the C-terminal portion of STAT1 is required for the constitutive suppression of the GILT promoter.