In a previous study, we reported the expression of mAChRs in mous

In a previous study, we reported the expression of mAChRs in mouse intestinal epithelial cells which are involved in the regulation of MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling (4). Three members of MAPK family, ERK (5), JNK (6) and p38 (7), are reported to be responsible for the negative regulation of intestinal secretion, in a cell culture system. Thus in the present study, we aim to explore the contribution of each MAPK for the negative regulation of mAChR-mediated intestinal secretion in a conventional Ussing chamber system. The experiments were reviewed by the ethics committee for RO4929097 price animal experiments in compliance with the ethical guidelines of Asahikawa Medical University. Male BALB/c mice between


and 10 weeks of age were used. Compounds were purchased from commercial sources find more as follows: atropine sulfate, mecamylamine, tetrodotoxin and U0126 (U0) (Wako Pure Chemical Industries Ltd., Osaka, Japan); acetylcholine chloride (Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan); forskolin (Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, USA); SB203580 (SB), SP600125 (SP), all primary antibodies and HRP-labeled secondary antibody were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology Inc. (Massachusetts, USA). In order to investigate the mAChRs-mediated MAPKs signaling, mouse mucosal fragments were used as a sample because the purified crypt epithelial cells underwent apoptosis as soon as the temperature was shifted to 25 °C (8), The mucosal fragments were scraped away from the membrane of a mouse colon as described in a previous report (4). The fragments were stimulated by ACh (100 μM) for 3 min with or without the pretreatment of inhibitors at the 25 °C

under the presence of a neuronal blocker, tetrodotoxin (1 μM) and a nicotinic AChR antagonist, mecamylamine (10 μM). The reaction was terminated by adding a SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl, pH 6.8, 10% glycerol, 1% SDS, 1% β-mercapto ethanol, and 0.1% bromophenol blue in the final concentration) and heated for 3 min at 100 °C. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. The membrane was probed with an appropriate primary antibody. The immunoreactive proteins were detected by horseradish-peroxidase-labeled secondary antibody with Amersham ECL Select Western Blotting Detection Kit (GE healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK). The ratio of intensities of signals was quantified by densitometry. For the electrophysiological study, the mucosal-submucosal preparation as a sheet from each mouse (middle-to-distal colon) was separated as described in a previous report (4) and mounted in Ussing chambers that provided an exposed area of 0.2 cm2. The volume of the bathing solution on each side was 5 ml, and the solution temperature was maintained at 37 °C in a water-jacketed reservoir. The bathing solution was composed of NaCl, 119 mM; NaHCO3, 21 mM; K2HPO4, 2.

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